Education Commission of the States • 700 Broadway, Suite 810 • Denver, CO 80203-3442 • 303.299.3600 • Fax: 303.296.8332 • www.ecs.org
Student Accountability Initiatives
Student accountability initiatives refer to policies that states have enacted to encourage students and parents to become more engaged in education. These initiatives typically hold students and parents accountable for poor academic performance and/or poor attendance. Consequences range from the loss of the student's driving privileges to criminal penalties for parents who fail to send their children to school. To see a synopsis of which states have enacted the policies listed below, please see the 2007 ECS StateNote titled "Student Accountability Initiatives." For a more detailed state-by-state breakdown, continue below.

The student accountability database is designed to allow state policymakers to consider the rationale behind various accountability initiatives, determine the policies in place in their state and elsewhere, and consider policy options used in other states that may benefit students and schools in their own state.

This database includes information on:

1. States with no-pass, no-drive policies:

Why does it matter? Students need to know that attendance matters; a driver's license can serve as a meaningful incentive to attend school.

No-pass, no-drive is a policy in which a student's driver's license is revoked typically because of poor attendance (habitual truancy) and/or poor academic performance. Currently, 27 states have such policies.

2. States with no-pass, no-play policies:

Why does it matter? The desire to participate in sports and other activities can play a strong role in encouraging attendance and engagement in learning.

No-pass, no-play is a policy in which a student's eligibility to participate in extracurricular activities and interscholastic sports is conditioned upon good academic standing and/or regular attendance. Sixteen states have such policies.

3. States with learnfare policies:

Why does it matter? Welfare benefits can serve as a meaningful incentive for students to attend school - and for parents to ensure their children attend school.

Learnfare refers to policies in which eligibility for public assistance grants to minor parents or dependents of grant recipients is conditioned upon the minor parent or dependent's attendance and/or progress towards graduation at school. Thirty-eight states have "learnfare" policies.

4. States with upper compulsory age of 18:

Why does it matter? Parents and students need to know that attendance matters, and that there are consequences to not attending school.

These laws relate to the upper age states set for mandatory student attendance, which are typically from 16-18 years of age. Twenty states have set 18 as the upper compulsory age. Parents and guardians who fail to send their compulsory age children to school typically face criminal penalties

5. Upper statutory age laws:

Why does it matter? Students who drop out or are otherwise disengaged from learning, but who later have a change of heart, benefit from being allowed to complete the coursework required for a diploma.

These laws relate to the maximum age in which the state is obligated to pay for a student's education (these ages do not refer to students with disabilities; however, for states with no upper statutory age laws, the upper statutory age for students with disabilities is given). The ages range from 19 to no upper limit. Ten states do not have upper statutory age laws: Seven have not addressed the policy in statute and three have indicated through policy that there is no upper age limit.

Methodology: This information was collected from state statutes, rules and regulations, and state education agencies, and will be updated as new policies and programs are enacted.

Last updated: July 30, 2007

Research conducted by Michael Colasanti. Please contact Jennifer Dounay Zinth at 303.299.3689 or jdounay@ecs.org with questions or comments about this database.
Alabama
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: For students under 19, the state conditions the issuance of a driver's license on school enrollment and attendance.
  • No Pass No Play
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Eligibility for extracurricular activities is determined by the student's grades.
  • Learnfare
  • No
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
    Upper statutory age Not in statute; however, for students with disabilities, the upper statutory age is 21 years.
    Sources No-pass, no drive: ALA. CODE § 16-28-40
    No-pass, no-play: ALA. ADMIN. CODE r. 290-3-1-.02(18)
    Compulsory age of 18:
    ALA. CODE § 16-28-3
    Upper statutory age: ALA. ADMIN. CODE r. 290-8-9-.06

    Alaska
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Applicants for assistance who are under 18 must maintain attendance at high school until they receive a diploma or GED. Cash assistance will be reduced for minor parents who do not satisfy this requirement.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
    Upper statutory age 20 years
    Sources Learnfare: ALASKA STAT. § 47.27.027(a)(3),(b)
    Compulsory age of 18: ALASKA STAT. § 14.30.010(a)
    Upper statutory age: ALASKA STAT. § 14.03.070

    American Samoa
    Student Accountability Initiatives

    Arizona
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Eligibility for extracurricular activities is determined by earning a passing grade in each course enrolled and satisfactory progress towards promotion/graduation.
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Parents who apply for or receive assistance on behalf of their child, if between six and 16, must ensure that the child is enrolled in and attending school.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources No-pass, no-play: ARIZ. ADMIN. CODE R7-2-808(2)
    Learnfare: ARIZ. REV. STAT. § 46-292(P)
    Compulsory age of 18: ARIZ. REV. STAT. § 15-802(A)
    Upper statutory age: ARIZ. CONST. ART. XI, § 6

    Arkansas
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Students who have excessive absences or have dropped out will have their licenses revoked.
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: A minor parent applying for or receiving aid must regularly attend school and make satisfactory progress towards completion as a condition of eligibility.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 17
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: ARK. CODE ANN. § 6-18-222(b)(2)
    Learnfare: 016 20 CARR 002
    Compulsory age of 18: ARK. CODE ANN. § 6-18-201(a)
    Upper statutory age: ARK. CODE ANN. § 6-18-202(b)(1)

    California
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: A student who is a habitual truant may have his/her driving privileges revoked.
  • No Pass No Play
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Students must maintain satisfactory educational progress to be eligible to participate in extracurricular activities.
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: All children under 16 in an assistance unit must regularly attend school or the adults in the assistance unit will not be considered when computing the grant of the family.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: CAL. VEH. CODE § 13202.7
    No-pass, no-play: CAL. EDUC. CODE § 35160.5
    Learnfare: CAL. WEL. & INST. CODE § 11253.5
    Compulsory age of 18: CAL. EDUC. CODE § 48200
    Upper statutory age: CAL. EDUC. CODE § 46300.1

    Colorado
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Families receiving assistance under the Colorado works program who have dependent children must ensure that they are in regular attendance at school.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 17
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources Learnfare: COLO. REV. STAT. § 26-2-706(1)
    Compulsory age of 18: COLO. REV. STAT. § 22-33-104(1)
    Upper statutory age: COLO. REV. STAT. § 22-1-102(1)

    Connecticut
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: A minor parent without a high school diploma or its equivalent, who is not married and has a child who is at least twelve weeks of age is ineligible for temporary family assistance unless such parent is participating in educational activities directed toward the attainment of a high school diploma or its equivalent.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources Learnfare: CONN. GEN. STAT. § 17b-688g
    Compulsory age of 18: CONN. GEN. STAT. § 10-184
    Upper statutory age: CONN. GEN. STAT. § 10-186(a)

    Delaware
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: A habitually truant student may have his/her driver's permit or license revoked.
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • No
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
    Upper statutory age 20 years
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: DEL. CODE ANN. tit. 14, § 2730(c)(6)-(7)
    Compulsory age of 18: DEL. CODE ANN. tit. 14, § 2702(a)(1)
    Upper statutory age: DEL. CODE ANN. tit. 14, § 202(a)

    District of Columbia
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: A pregnant or parenting teen who is unwed and has not completed high school must regularly attend school to be eligible for federally-funded TANF benefits.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
    Upper statutory age Adult students may receive educational services as long as they meet all other eligibility criteria.
    Sources Learnfare: D.C. CODE ANN. § 4-205.65
    Compulsory age of 18: D.C. CODE ANN. § 38-202(a)
    Upper statutory age: D.C. MUN. REGS. tit. 5, § 2000.3

    Florida
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: A minor must fulfill school attendance requirements to be eligible to drive.
  • No Pass No Play
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Students must have a GPA above 2.0 and must maintain satisfactory conduct to be eligible to participate in interscholastic extracurricular activities.
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: If a participant's child or if the participant is a teen and is habitually truant or drops out, the state will reduce the temporary cash assistance that is otherwise provided.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
    Upper statutory age Not in statute; however, for students with disabilities, the upper statutory age is 21 years.
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: FLA. STAT. ch. 322.091
    No-pass, no-play: FLA. STAT. ch. 1006.15(3)
    Learnfare: FLA. STAT. ch. 414.1251; FLA. ADMIN. CODE ANN. r. 65A-4.2131
    Compulsory age of 18: FLA. STAT. ch. 1003.21
    Upper statutory age: FLA. ADMIN. CODE ANN. r. 6A-6.0331

    Georgia
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: A minor must have a high school diploma or its equivalent or be enrolled in school to receive a driver's license.
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: A teenager who is included in a parent's TANF grant must attend school or will be removed from the grant the next pay period.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
    Upper statutory age 20 years
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: GA. CODE ANN. § 40-5-22(a.1)
    Learnfare: GA. CODE ANN. § 49-4-192; GA. COMP. R. & REGS. r. 290-2-28-.18
    Compulsory age of 18: GA. CODE ANN. § 20-2-690.1(a)
    Upper statutory age: GA. CODE ANN. § 20-2-150(a)

    Hawaii
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Participants in Hawaii's First-to-Work program who are custodial parents under 20 are required to participate in educational activities to be eligible.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
    Upper statutory age Not in statute; however, for students with disabilities, the upper statutory age is 20.
    Sources Learnfare: WCHR 17-684
    Compulsory age of 18: HAW. REV. STAT. § 302A-1132(a)
    Upper statutory age: HAW. REV. STAT. § 302A-101

    Idaho
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: A minor must hold a high school diploma or its equivalent or be enrolled in school to receive a driver's license.
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • No
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: IDAHO CODE § 49-303A
    Compulsory age of 18:
    IDAHO CODE § 33-202
    Upper statutory age: IDAHO CODE § 33-201

    Illinois
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: A graduated driver's license will not be issued to minors (who are not emancipated) unless they have either graduated from high school (or obtained a GED), enrolled in a course leading to a GED certificate or enrolled in an elementary or secondary school or college or university in the state. Students who have been expelled also face revocation of their driving privileges.
  • No Pass No Play
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Students must maintain a minimum GPA to be eligible for extracurricular activities.
  • Learnfare
  • No
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 17
    Upper statutory age 20 years
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: 105 ILL. COMP. STAT. 5/26-3a, 625 ILL. COMP. STAT. 5/6-107(b-1)
    No-pass, no-play: 105 ILL. COMP. STAT. 5/10-20.30
    Compulsory age of 18: 105 ILL. COMP. STAT. 5/26-1
    Upper statutory age: 105 ILL. COMP. STAT. 5/10-20.12

    Indiana
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: A driver's license can be withheld if the student is habitually truant, under a second suspension, is expelled or has dropped out.
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Recipients and children of recipients of assistance from Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) must attend school and have less than three unexcused absences if they are of compulsory age or have not graduated from high school or received a GED.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
    Upper statutory age 22 years
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: IND. CODE §§ 9-24-2-1(a), 20-33-2-11(a)
    Learnfare:
    IND. CODE § 12-14-2-17
    Compulsory age of 18: IND. CODE § 20-33-2-6
    Upper statutory age: IND. CODE § 20-21-1-6

    Iowa
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Anyone under the age of 18 who does not attend school may not receive a driver's license.
  • No Pass No Play
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: To be eligible to participate in interscholastic competition, students must receive credit in at least four subjects and must make adequate progress toward graduation requirements at the end of each grading period.
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Parents who are also a minors and are participating in the Family Investment Program must have their high school diploma or GED, or be enrolled full-time in school to be eligible.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: IOWA CODE § 299.1B
    No-pass, no-play: IOWA ADMIN. CODE r. 281-36.15(2)(c)
    Learnfare: IOWA CODE § 239B.10(4)
    Compulsory age of 18: IOWA CODE § 299.1A
    Upper statutory age: IOWA CODE § 282.6

    Kansas
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Students who violate certain school safety measures (possession of a weapon or controlled substance, inflicting serious injury to others) have their driving privileges revoked for one year.
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Teen parents who are not married and who have not received a high school diploma or GED, or who are not working towards a high school diploma or GED, are not eligible for temporary assistance.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
    Upper statutory age No upper statutory age
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: KAN. STAT. ANN. § 72-89c02
    Learnfare:
    KAN. ADMIN. REGS. 30-4-70(f)
    Compulsory age of 18: KAN. STAT. ANN. § 72-1111(a)

    Kentucky
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Students age 16 and 17 have their licenses revoked for at least one semester if student does not pass four courses in preceding semester or if the student drops out.
  • No Pass No Play
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Student participation in extracurricular activities is based on academic qualifications and attendance requirements.
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Eligibility for public assistance for needy children is conditioned upon their regular attendance at school.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: KY. REV. STAT. ANN. § 159.051
    No-pass, no-play: KY. REV. STAT. ANN. § 160.345(2)(h)(i)(8)
    Learnfare: KY. REV. STAT. ANN. § 205.200(3)
    Compulsory age of 18: KY. REV. STAT. ANN. § 159.010(1)
    Upper statutory age: KY. REV. STAT. ANN. § 158.100

    Louisiana
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: A suspension or expulsion from school (for 10 or more consecutive days) results in a revocation of a student's driver's license or his/her ability to obtain one.
  • No Pass No Play
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: To participate in extracurricular activities and interscholastic sports, all students must meet the eligibility requirements of the Louisiana High School Athletic Association which requires that students must pass at least five subjects and earn a minimum 1.5 GPA each semester.
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: To be eligible to receive aid, minor parents without a high school diploma or GED must attend classes designed to obtain a diploma or GED.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: LA. REV. STAT. ANN. § 32:431
    No-pass, no-play: LA. REV. STAT. ANN. § 17:176(C); Louisiana High School Athletic Association Eligibility Guidelines (see "enrollment" and "scholastic" sections)
    Learnfare: LA. REV. STAT. ANN. § 46:231.3(B)(2)
    Compulsory age of 18: LA. REV. STAT. ANN. § 17:221(A)(1)
    Upper statutory age: LA. REV. STAT. ANN. § 17:221.3

    Maine
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Parents under 20 who are receiving TANF benefits and do not have a high school diploma or GED must participate in the ASPIRE-TANF program and attend classes to complete high school.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 17
    Upper statutory age 20 years
    Sources Learnfare: ME. REV. STAT. ANN. tit. 22, § 3763(3)
    Compulsory age of 18: ME. REV. STAT. ANN. tit. 20-A, § 3271(1)
    Upper statutory age: ME. REV. STAT. ANN. tit. 20-A, § 201(1)

    Maryland
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Each local school system is required to establish standards of participation which assure that students involved in interscholastic athletics are making satisfactory progress toward graduation.
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Children under 19 in the Family Investment Program must be enrolled full time in a secondary school or its equivalent to be eligible for aid.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources No-pass, no-play: MD. REGS. CODE. tit. 13A, § 06.03.02
    Learnfare: MD. REGS. CODE. tit. 7, § 07.03.03.07(C)
    Compulsory age of 18: MD. CODE ANN., EDUC. § 7-301(a)(1)
    Upper statutory age: MD. CODE ANN., EDUC. § 7-101(a)

    Massachusetts
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: A parent applying for transitional aid for a dependent under 14 must verify that the child is regularly attending school.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is set by the local school board
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources Learnfare: MASS. REGS. CODE tit. 106, § 203.900
    Compulsory age of 18: MASS. GEN. LAWS ch. 76, § 1
    Upper statutory age: MASS. GEN. LAWS ch. 71B, § 1

    Michigan
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Minor parents receiving family independence assistance must attend school until completion (receipt of diploma).
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
    Upper statutory age 20 years
    Sources Learnfare: MICH. COMP. LAWS § 400.57e(1)(b)
    Compulsory age of 18: MICH. COMP. LAWS § 380.1561(1)
    Upper statutory age: MICH. COMP. LAWS § 388.1606(4)(l)

    Minnesota
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • No
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources Compulsory age of 18: MINN. STAT. § 120A.22(5)(a)
    Upper statutory age: MINN. STAT. § 120A.20(1)(a)

    Mississippi
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: A minor must be enrolled in school and making satisfactory progress to obtain a driver's license.
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: TANF recipients who are under 20 must have a high school diploma or must be working towards a high school diploma. Also, compulsory aged children who are TANF recipients must meet school attendance requirements for continued eligibility.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 17
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: MISS. CODE ANN. § 63-1-9(1)(g)
    Learnfare: MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-17-5(4)
    Compulsory age of 18: MISS. CODE ANN. § 37-13-91(2)(f)
    Upper statutory age: MISS. CODE ANN. § 37-45-1

    Missouri
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: For children 18 and under, eligibility for TANF is determined, in part, by their continued enrollment in school.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is determined by the local school district
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources Learnfare: MO. CODE REGS. ANN. tit. 13, § 40-2.310(8)(A)
    Compulsory age of 18: MO. REV. STAT. § 167.031(1)
    Upper statutory age: MO. REV. STAT. § 160.051(1)

    Montana
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • No
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
    Upper statutory age 19 years
    Sources Compulsory age of 18: MONT. CODE ANN. § 20-5-102(1)(a)
    Upper statutory age: MONT. CODE ANN. § 20-1-101(16)

    Nebraska
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Cash assistance to families with children under 16 may be reduced if the children do not regularly attend school.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources No-pass, no-play: NEB. REV. STAT. § 79-258
    Learnfare: NEB. REV. STAT. §68-1724(2)(c)
    Compulsory age of 18: NEB. REV. STAT. § 79-201(1)(b)
    Upper statutory age: NEB. CONST. ART. VII, § 1

    Nevada
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Minors who are adjudicated as habitual truants for the first time have their driver's license suspended for up to six months. A second adjudication results in a suspension of up to one year.
  • No Pass No Play
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: For students who participate in a sanctioned sport, they must enroll in a course of at least two units of credit and regularly attend a school. Students must successfully complete a course of at least two units of credit for the immediately preceding semester. If they fail to complete successfully the course for that semester, they are ineligible to participate in a sanctioned sport for one semester.
  • Learnfare
  • No
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: NEV. REV. STAT. 62E.430(1)(a)(2),(1)(b)(2)
    No-pass, no-play: NEV. ADMIN. CODE ch. 386, § 802
    Compulsory age of 18: NEV. REV. STAT. 392.040(1)
    Upper statutory age: NEV. ADMIN. CODE ch. 387, § 345(5)

    New Hampshire
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • No
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources Compulsory age of 18: N.H. REV. STAT. ANN. § 193:1(I)
    Upper statutory age: N.H. REV. STAT. ANN. § 189:1-a

    New Jersey
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Dependent children who are 16 and older must attend school to continue receiving assistance benefits.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
    Upper statutory age 20 years
    Sources No-pass, no-play: N.J. STAT. ANN. § 18A:36-37(c); New Jersey State Interscholastic Athletic Association eligibility guidelines (see "credits" pg. 4-5)
    Learnfare: N.J. STAT. ANN. § 44:10-63(a)(4)
    Compulsory age of 18: N.J. STAT. ANN. § 18A:38-25
    Upper statutory age: N.J. STAT. ANN. § 18A:38-1

    New Mexico
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Students classified as habitual truants may have their driving privileges revoked.
  • No Pass No Play
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Students must maintain a 2.0 GPA and cannot miss more than 15 days at school to be eligible to participate in interscholastic extracurricular activities.
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Children between 6 and 17 who are in families receiving cash assistance must be enrolled full-time in school. Failure to do so results in the removal of the student's portion of assistance.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: N.M. STAT. ANN. § 22-12-7
    No-pass, no-play: N.M. STAT. ANN. § 22-12-2.1
    Learnfare: N.M. ADMIN. CODE tit. 8, § 102.420.9
    Compulsory age of 18: N.M. STAT. ANN. § 22-12-2(A)
    Upper statutory age: N.M. STAT. ANN. § 22-1-2(O)

    New York
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: A child in grades 1 through 6 who is part of a grant of public assistance must attend school and cannot have more than five unexcused absences or the grant will be reduced by $60 for three consecutive months.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources Learnfare: N.Y. COMP. CODES R. & REGS. tit. 18, § 351.12
    Compulsory age of 18: N.Y. EDUC. LAW § 3205(1)(a)
    Upper statutory age: N.Y. EDUC. LAW § 3202(1)

    North Carolina
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: To obtain a driver's license, a minor must have a high school diploma or its equivalent, or a driving eligibility certificate (which requires enrollment in school and progress towards graduation.)
  • No Pass No Play
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Students must pass at least 75% of the maximum of possible courses each semester and meet promotion standards established by the district to participate in interscholastic athletic competition.
  • Learnfare
  • No
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: N.C. GEN. STAT. § 20-11(n)
    No-pass, no-play: N.C. ADMIN. CODE tit. 16, r. 6E.0202
    Compulsory age of 18:
    N.C. GEN. STAT. § 115C-378
    Upper statutory age: N.C. GEN. STAT. § 115C-1

    North Dakota
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • No
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources Compulsory age of 18: N.D. CENT. CODE § 15.1-20-01(1)
    Upper statutory age: N.D. CENT. CODE § 15.1-06-01(1)(c)

    Ohio
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Minors who withdraw from school or are habitually absent can have their driver's permit or license revoked.
  • No Pass No Play
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Students must maintain a minimum GPA and cannot be failing any course to be eligible to participate in interscholastic extracurricular activities.
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: A participating student who fails to comply with the attendance requirements two or more times results in a reduction of cash assistance payments.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: OHIO REV. CODE ANN. § 4510.32
    No-pass, no-play: OHIO REV. CODE ANN. § 3313.535
    Learnfare: OHIO REV. CODE ANN. § 5107.28
    Compulsory age of 18: OHIO REV. CODE ANN. § 3321.01(A)(1)
    Upper statutory age: OHIO REV. CODE ANN. § 3313.64(F)(1)

    Oklahoma
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: A minor must be enrolled in school or have a high school diploma to receive a driver's license.
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Each child in a family receiving TANF between kindergarten age and 18 must attend school. Failure to do so results in a 25% reduction penalty.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: OKLA. STAT. tit. 47, § 6-107.3
    Learnfare:
    OKLA. ADMIN. CODE § 340:10-13-1
    Compulsory age of 18: OKLA. STAT. tit. 70, § 10-105(A),(B) 
    Upper statutory age: OKLA. STAT. tit. 70, § 1-114(A)

    Oregon
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: A school district may establish a policy to revoke a student's driving privileges if expelled for a weapons possession at school or if suspended at least twice for possession of controlled substances or violent behavior while at school.
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • No
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: OR. REV. STAT. § 339.254
    Compulsory age of 18:
    OR. REV. STAT. § 339.010
    Upper statutory age: OR. REV. STAT. § 339.115(2)

    Pennsylvania
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Children between eight and 18 are required to attend school without attendance problems for continued eligibility for aid under AFDC.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 17
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources Learnfare: PA. STAT. ANN. tit. 62, § 464
    Compulsory age of 18: PA. STAT. ANN. tit. 24, § 13-1326
    Upper statutory age: PA. STAT. ANN. tit. 24, § 13-1301

    Puerto Rico
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Children under 18 in a family receiving assistance must attend school to continue to be eligible.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, there is no upper compulsory age
    Upper statutory age Not in statute; however, for students with disabilities, the upper statutory age is 21 years.
    Sources Learnfare: 8 P.R. LAWS ANN. § 14a
    Compulsory age of 18: 18 P.R. LAWS ANN. § 2
    Upper statutory age: 18 P.R. LAWS ANN. § 1352

    Rhode Island
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Truant students may have their driving privileges revoked.
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Parents under 20 who are receiving cash assistance and who do not have a high school diploma or GED must regularly attend a program to obtain a diploma or GED.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
    Upper statutory age Not in statute; however, for students with disabilities, the upper statutory age is 21 years.
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: R.I. GEN. LAWS § 14-1-32(5)
    Learnfare:
    R.I. GEN. LAWS § 40-5.1-9(c)(2)(i)(G)
    Compulsory age of 18: R.I. GEN. LAWS § 16-19-1(a)
    Upper statutory age: R.I. CODE R. 08-010-002 § 300.7(a)(1)

    South Carolina
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Students younger than 17 must have a high school diploma or its equivalent or must be enrolled and attending school in order to receive a driver's license.
  • No Pass No Play
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: To participate in interscholastic activities, students in grades nine through twelve must achieve an overall passing average and either pass at least four academic courses, including each unit the student takes that is required for graduation or pass a total of five academic courses.
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Welfare recipients under the age of eighteen must be enrolled and maintain satisfactory attendance, as defined by the department of education, as a condition of eligibility for benefits.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 17
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: S.C. CODE ANN. § 56-1-176
    No-pass, no-play: S.C. CODE ANN. § 59-39-160
    Learnfare: S.C. CODE ANN. § 43-5-1215
    Compulsory age of 18: S.C. CODE ANN. § 59-65-10(A)
    Upper statutory age: S.C. CODE ANN. § 59-63-20

    South Dakota
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • No
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources No-pass, no-play: S.D. CODIFIED LAWS § 13-36-4; South Dakota High School Activities Association eligibility rules (see pg. 12)
    Compulsory age of 18:
    S.D. CODIFIED LAWS § 13-27-1
    Upper statutory age: S.D. CODIFIED LAWS § 13-28-1.1

    Tennessee
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: A minor must have a high school diploma or its equivalent or must be enrolled and making satisfactory progress in school to receive a driver's license. Also, any students who have committed an offense resulting in a mandatory one year suspension or expulsion from school may have their driving privileges revoked for up to two years or until they turn 18.
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Children in families receiving temporary assistance must attend school (including kindergarten) for continued eligibility.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 17
    Upper statutory age Local district determines eligibility.
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: TENN. CODE ANN. §§ 49-6-3017, 55-50-515
    Learnfare: TENN. CODE ANN. § 71-3-154(h)(2)(B)(i)
    Compulsory age of 18: TENN. CODE ANN. § 49-6-3001(c)
    Upper statutory age: TENN. CODE ANN. § 49-6-403(d)

    Texas
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: A minor must have a high school diploma or its equivalent or must be enrolled in school to receive a driver's license.
  • No Pass No Play
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: To be eligible to participate in extracurricular activities, students must maintain a 70% in all non-honors or advanced classes.
  • Learnfare
  • No
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
    Upper statutory age 26 years
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: TEX. TRANSP. CODE ANN. § 521.204(a)(3)
    No-pass, no-play: TEX. EDUC. CODE ANN. § 33.081(c)
    Compulsory age of 18:
    TEX. EDUC. CODE ANN. § 25.085(b)
    Upper statutory age: TEX. EDUC. CODE ANN. § 25.001(a)

    Utah
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Minor parents who are single and who do not have a high school diploma must attend school 20 hours per week to be eligible for cash assistance.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
    Upper statutory age Not in statute; however, for students with disabilities, the upper statutory age is 22 years.
    Sources Learnfare: UTAH CODE ANN. § 35A-3-307(2)(d)(i)
    Compulsory age of 18: UTAH CODE ANN. § 53A-11-101(d)
    Upper statutory age: UTAH CODE ANN. § 53A-15-301(1)(a)

    Vermont
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Parents under 18 must attend school or appropriate alternative education activities for eligibility for aid.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
    Upper statutory age No upper statutory age
    Sources Learnfare: VT. STAT. ANN. tit. 33, § 1103(e)(1)
    Compulsory age of 18: VT. STAT. ANN. tit. 16, § 1121
    Upper statutory age: VT. STAT. ANN. tit. 16, § 828

    Virgin Islands
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • No
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
    Upper statutory age Not in statute; however, for students with disabilities, the upper statutory age is 21 years.
    Sources Compulsory age of 18: 17 V.I. CODE ANN. § 82
    Upper statutory age: 17 V.I. CODE ANN. § 287(a)

    Virginia
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Evidence of compliance with the state's compulsory school attendance laws must be presented for a minor to obtain a driver's license.
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: In order to be eligible for TANF, minor parents must be in compliance with the school's compulsory attendance requirements. Failure to attend will result in the loss of benefits.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
    Upper statutory age 20 years
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: VA. CODE ANN. § 46.2-334(4)
    Learnfare: VA. CODE ANN. § 63.2-606
    Compulsory age of 18: VA. CODE ANN. § 22.1-254(A)
    Upper statutory age: VA. CODE ANN. § 22.1-1

    Washington
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Children under 19 receiving TANF benefits must regularly attend school and must be making satisfactory progress towards completion.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources Learnfare: WASH. ADMIN. CODE § 388-404-0005(1)(b)
    Compulsory age of 18: WASH. REV. CODE § 28A.225.010(1)
    Upper statutory age: WASH. REV. CODE § 28A.225.160

    West Virginia
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: A minor must have a high school diploma or its equivalent or must be enrolled and making progress in school.
  • No Pass No Play
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: A student is required to do passing work in the equivalent of at least 20 periods (four subjects with full credit toward graduation) per week to be eligible to participate in athletics. Failure to earn passing marks in four full credit subjects during a semester shall render a student ineligible for the following semester.
  • Learnfare
  • No
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: W. VA. CODE § 18-8-11(a)
    No-pass, no-play: W. VA. CODE ST. R. § 127-2-6
    Compulsory age of 18:
    W. VA. CODE § 18-8-1(a)
    Upper statutory age: W. VA. CODE § 18-5-15(b)

    Wisconsin
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Students who drop out of high school may have their driver's licenses revoked.
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: All teenagers who have not graduated from high school and are included in an assistance grant must attend school to meet the eligibility requirements.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
    Upper statutory age 20 years
    Sources No-pass, no-drive: WIS. STAT. § 118.163(2m)(a)
    Learnfare:
    WIS. STAT. § 49.26; WIS. ADMIN. CODE § 11.195
    Compulsory age of 18: WIS. STAT. § 118.15(1)(a)
    Upper statutory age: WIS. CONST. ART. X, § 3

    Wyoming
    Student Accountability Initiatives
    No Pass No Drive
  • No
  • No Pass No Play
  • No
  • Learnfare
  • Yes
  • Notes/Citation: Minors who have completed the eighth grade or who are 16 must attend high school for the family to receive their monthly performance payment.
  • State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
    Upper statutory age 21 years
    Sources Learnfare: WYO. STAT. ANN. § 42-2-202(d)(ii)
    Compulsory age of 18: WYO. STAT. ANN. § 21-4-102(a)
    Upper statutory age: WYO. STAT. ANN. § 21-4-301



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