Education Commission of the States • 700 Broadway, Suite 810 • Denver, CO 80203-3442 • 303.299.3600 • Fax: 303.296.8332 • www.ecs.org
Adolescent Literacy

As stated in Reading to Achieve: A Governor's Guide to Adolescent Literacy  (National Governors Association, 2005): 

The term "adolescent literacy" refers to the set of skills and abilities that students need in grades four through 12 to read, write, and think about the text materials they encounter. Becoming literate is a developmental and lifelong process, which in the 21st century includes becoming literate with electronic and multimedia texts as well as conventional written material. Grade four is when students experience a shift in emphasis from learning how to read to learning from reading text. America's adolescents need to be literate not only to succeed in school, but also to succeed in life.
This database includes information on:

1. State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers. Twenty-three states provide interventions. Specific interventions might include tutoring, additional reading time, and/or the use of a different instructional approach. A "yes" response indicates the existence of a statewide policy requiring students in grades 4-12 to be offered one or more of these interventions.

Why does it matter?
  • Reading problems that are not addressed are cumulative, and so are the esteem problems associated with poor reading skills.
  • Reading below a proficient level contributes to decreased ability to comprehend, to apply knowledge and to communicate effectively.
  • 2. State requires students performing below proficiency on state reading assessments to be targeted for diagnostic reading assessments. Thirteen states target students for diagnostic reading assessments.

    Why does it matter?

  • The exact cause of reading below proficiency may stem from many addressable problems. Careful diagnosis is vitally important.
  • Intervention based on a mistaken diagnosis can be costly.


  • 3. State has literacy report card or other means to build momentum for improving adolescent literacy. Seven states have established a program to build momentum for improving adolescent literacy. A literacy report card might include progress being made in student test scores, curriculum alignment and teacher training. Or a state might simply include adolescent literacy gains in its annual report card.

    Why does it matter?
  • State efforts to successfully raise K-3 reading skills can flounder in later grades if effective teaching of reading is neglected in the upper elementary and secondary grades.
  • Effective change takes time and commitment; there are no shortcuts and no places to stop.
  • Nearly half of the undergraduates enrolled in remedial classes in 2000 took remedial writing and 35% took remedial reading. (National Center for Education Statistics, 2001)
  • Literacy demands for today's workforce have accelerated and will continue to do so.


  • 4. State has aligned literacy standards with curricula, assessments and professional development activities. Fourteen states have aligned the literacy standards and one state (Texas) has standards up for state board approval in May 2008.

    Why does it matter?
  • Without state policy to assure systemic alignment, literacy programs can become disconnected and ineffective.
  • Aligned literacy efforts must continually direct the student back on track.
  • Integration of high quality reading and writing instruction extends good instruction.


  • 5. State provides support for local literacy plans. Eleven states provide support for local efforts. "Support" can be a cadre of state department staff offering guidance in drawing up the plan, state convening of regional literacy summits, or monetary supports for research materials.

    Why does it matter?
  • Implementation occurs at the local level.


  • 6. State has strengthened teacher preparation/certification requirements to support adolescent literacy needs. Seventeen states have strengthened the teacher preparation/certification requirements to reflect adolescent literacy. Traditionally the teaching of reading has been confined to the primary grades. Awareness of the need to address adolescent literacy has resulted in states incorporating literacy instruction in their secondary-level teacher preparation and certification requirements.

    Why does it matter?
  • Secondary-level teacher certification programs have traditionally not prepared teachers to teach reading or how to intervene when students are reading below grade level.
  • Eliminating reading difficulties requires the integration of literacy training across the content areas.


  • 7. State offers specialized certification/endorsement in adolescent literacy for content area teachers. Only one state, Florida, has a specialized certification/endorsement in adolescent literacy. Reading difficulties at the upper elementary and secondary grades may be beyond what traditional content area teachers are able to address.  A specialized certification/endorsement may provide a teacher with the tools to diagnose and respond to an adolescent learner's specific literacy needs.

    Why does it matter?
  • Specialized training allows teachers not only to pick up on a student's reading difficulties, but also to catch the teacher or the teaching methods that might be contributing to the problem.


  • 8. State offers schoolwide professional development in adolescent literacy instruction. Fourteen states offer schoolwide professional development in adolescent literacy instruction.

    Why does it matter?
  • Middle and high school teachers who have been in the classroom for a number of years might not have received preservice training on teaching reading and/or detecting precise reading-related problems.
  • Professional development provides new tools to address adolescent literacy.
  • Schoolwide professional development for teachers and principals allows a building-level focus on 1) analyzing student performance data to identify gaps; 2) matching instruction to student needs based on assessment data; 3) promoting collaboration among educators; and 4) assigning school personnel roles to support literacy improvement.
  • Training must be systemic and sustained, and it must be more than a one-time workshop.


  • 9. State offers middle/high school teachers a mentoring/induction program with a literacy component. Two states have included literacy in their mentoring/induction program.

    Why does it matter?
  • Strong mentoring or induction programs offer ongoing, systemic and long-term assistance.


  • 10. State offers principals incentives to strengthen their leadership in adolescent literacy. No state offers principal incentives.

    Why does it matter?
  • Building-level leaders are in a position to encourage participation in professional development and foster teachers' taking more leadership roles.
  • Administrative support is crucial for implementation of change and assurance of continued focus on literacy efforts across the content areas.


  • 11. State has designated a state office or coordinator for adolescent literacy. Only one state (Florida) has designated a centralized office or coordinator through policy, while seven additional states have designated a centralized office or coordinator through practice.

    Why does it matter?
  • A designated state office or coordinator is reflective of state commitment.
  • A designated office or coordinator helps to assure the effort does not become shoved aside in favor of other priorities.


  • 12. State has standards that reflect literacy expectations explicit in grades 4-12. Thirteen states have standards explicitly reflecting literacy expectations.

    Why does it matter?
  • Challenging standards help to improve efficiency, generate challenging cohesive curriculum and are the basis for holding students, teachers and school accountable.
  • Standards are the launch pad for redesigning curriculum, assessment, accountability, teacher education, professional development and resource allocation.


  • 13. Other efforts/initiatives. Sixteen states have significant activities occurring that are not reflected in state statute or board rules and regulations. Many meaningful initiatives have occurred without state statute or rules and regulations forcing the activity. Governors' offices, state universities, state task forces and state agencies have all sparked impressive efforts in the states that do not clearly fall into common categories, but are worthy of mention for their potential replication by other states.

    Methodology: Policies were collected from state statutes, recently enacted legislation (session laws), and rules and regulations. Where necessary, statewide initiatives created outside of policy were collected from state education agencies. The information will be updated as changes occur.

    Last updated:
     June 2008

    Research was conducted by Melodye Bush. Please contact Bush at 303-299-3631 or mbush@ecs.org with comments or questions about this database.

    Alabama
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers No. While secondary schools participating in the Alabama Reading Initiative must adopt the goal of schoolwide literacy, participation is voluntary. Schools apply to participate in the initiative, and are selected based on a demonstration of readiness and willingness to commit to reforms. Of the 899 Alabama Reading Initiative schools in March 2007, 138 were secondary schools.
    State has aligned literacy standards with curricula, assessments and professional development activities Yes
    State provides supports for local literacy plans No policy evident, but in practice state appears to support local literacy plans.
    State has strengthened teacher preparation/certification requirements to support adolescent literacy needs Yes
    State has standards that reflect literacy expectations explicit in grades 4-12 Yes
    Other efforts/initiatives Onsite access to literacy coaches is currently restricted to grades K-3. Some schools and districts locally fund literacy coaches at the middle/high school level. The Alabama Reading Initiative provides training for those individuals. Expansion plans include a coaching component for grades 4-8.

    2007 legislative session funded the Alabama Reading Initiative at a level that will allow expansion of the program into middle grades and high schools.
    Sources Aligned Literacy Standards: Alabama Department of Education's Standards
    Teacher Preparation/Certification: ALA. ADMIN. CODE 290-3-3-.06
    Professional Development: Closing the Gap: How the Alabama Reading Initiative is Transforming Reading Instruction for all Students
    Mentoring/Induction Program: Closing the Gap: How the Alabama Reading Initiative is Transforming Reading Instruction for all Students
    State Measures Progress: Closing the Gap: How the Alabama Reading Initiative is Transforming Reading Instruction for all Students

    Alaska
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    Sources

    Arizona
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers Yes
    State requires students performing below proficiency on state reading assessments to be targeted for diagnostic reading assessments Yes
    Other efforts/initiatives The state held three adolescent literacy forums throughout the state in 2007. The Governor's P-20 Council sponsored the forums. 
    Sources Diagnostic Reading Assessments: ARIZ. ADMIN. CODE R7-2-602, ARIZ. REV. STAT. § 15-704
    Other Efforts/Initiatives: National Governors Association's Center for Best Practices, Reading to Achieve: A Governor's Guide to Adolescent Literacy

    Arkansas
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers Yes, state regulations require point-in-time intervention for students found to be reading below grade level.
    State requires students performing below proficiency on state reading assessments to be targeted for diagnostic reading assessments Yes
    State has literacy report card or other means to build momentum for improving adolescent literacy Yes
    State has aligned literacy standards with curricula, assessments and professional development activities Yes
    State provides supports for local literacy plans Yes, through the School Improvement Unit and Professional Development Section.  In addition, content literacy support is available through the professional development providers in regional educational cooperatives and centers on university campuses.
    State offers schoolwide professional development in adolescent literacy instruction Yes, the Literacy Lab Classroom Project is a two-year, 14-day professional development opportunity designed to help teachers create a reading workshop environment in their classrooms. The first year addresses the need for creating engaging literate classroom environments, instruction in fluency and comprehension strategies. The second year is designed to help teachers use assessment to inform instruction.

    Arkansas' Smart Step is a comprehensive initiative with the goal of having all students on grade level in reading by the end of the eighth grade. Smart Step's professional development is available to all teachers and principals.  The activities provide additional support to help teachers teach to the standards and to use assessments in a more effective way.
    State has designated a state office or coordinator for adolescent literacy No policy is evident, but in practice the K-12 Literacy Program Manager in the department of education functions as the designated coordinator for adolescent literacy. 
    State has standards that reflect literacy expectations explicit in grades 4-12 Yes
    Sources Interventions: ARK. CODE ANN. §§ 6-15-240, 6-16-603, ARK REG. 005.19.06-002, ADE 247-1
    Diagnostic Reading Assessment: ARK. CODE ANN. § 6-15-404, Department of Education Rules 247-1-7.0
    Aligned Literacy Standards: ARK. CODE ANN. §§16-15-1502, 16-15-1503, Department of Education Rules 207-1
    Support for Local Literacy Plan: Department of Education Rules 207-1, ARK. REG. 005-16 CARR 001
    Professional Development: ARK. CODE ANN. § 6-17-701, Arkansas Smart-Step Program
    State Measures Progress:  Department of Education Rules 247-1
    Literacy Expectations:  Curriculum Frameworks

    California
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers Yes
    State has strengthened teacher preparation/certification requirements to support adolescent literacy needs Yes
    State offers schoolwide professional development in adolescent literacy instruction Yes, state statute provides for High School English Professional Development Institutes. Program is limited to: schools where students score below the 40th percentile on English language arts achievement tests; schools with high poverty levels; teams of teachers from various departments within a school; schools with a high number of beginning and noncredentialed teachers; and, schools that have adopted standards-based materials.
    Sources Interventions: CAL. EDUC. CODE ART. 4.5 § 52378
    Diagnostic Reading Assessments: ARIZ. ADMIN. CODE R7-2-602, ARIZ. REV. STAT. § 15-704
    Teacher Preparation/Certification: CAL. EDUC. CODE § 44283 
    Professional Development:
     CAL. EDUC. CODE § 99221 

    Colorado
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives

    Connecticut
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers No policy evident, but in practice the state department of education directs schools to provide interventions for struggling readers.
    State requires students performing below proficiency on state reading assessments to be targeted for diagnostic reading assessments Yes. As part of the state department of education's Response to Intervention model, schools are directed to target students who perform below proficiency on state reading assessments, for diagnostic reading assessments.
    State has literacy report card or other means to build momentum for improving adolescent literacy Yes
    State has aligned literacy standards with curricula, assessments and professional development activities Yes
    State provides supports for local literacy plans No policy is evident but in practice the state appears to provide local literacy plans. Through its January 2007 release of their resource materials on adolescent literacy and follow-up interactive workshops and technical assistance to all districts, the State Department of Education provides professional support for local literacy plans.
    State has strengthened teacher preparation/certification requirements to support adolescent literacy needs Yes
    State offers schoolwide professional development in adolescent literacy instruction No policy is evident, but in practice it appears the state offers schoolwide professional development.
    State has designated a state office or coordinator for adolescent literacy No policy evident, but in practice the State Department of Education's Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction's Education Consultant coordinates the adolescent literacy initiatives.
    State has standards that reflect literacy expectations explicit in grades 4-12 Yes, grades 4-12 literacy expectation standards are outlined in the state department of education resources, and additional literacy expectation standards are outlined in the 4-8 literacy grade-level expectations.
    Sources Literacy Report Card: Beyond the Blueprint: Literacy in Grades 4-12 and Across the Content Area
    Teacher Preparation/Certification: CONN. AGENCIES REGS. § 10-145d-446

    Delaware
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    Other efforts/initiatives The department of education developed the Success for Secondary Struggling Readers (SSSR) Institute in consultation with the University of Delaware and with input from reading specialists from across the state. The training is available to special education, English and content-area teachers of struggling readers in grades four through twelve. Teachers who complete the 90-hour program are eligible for a two percent pay raise.

    Delaware began piloting a literacy plan with rubrics in two districts in February 2007. In the 2007-2008 school year, all schools will need to include the literacy rubrics as they develop their consolidated plans. The requirement will likely be approved by the state board of education in 2007. For middle grade students, Delaware is also infusing literacy instruction strategies in vertical team training supported by the federal advanced placement expansion grant.
    Sources Other Efforts/Initiatives: National Governors Association's Center for Best Practices, Reading to Achieve: A Governor's Guide to Adolescent Literacy

    District of Columbia
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives

    Florida
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers Yes, Just Read, Florida! calls for intensive intervention in reading and requires that it occur early and be delivered through innovative systems. In addition, this law requires local boards to adopt policies in support of summer academies where students receive intensive reading intervention or competency-based credit recovery courses. 
    State requires students performing below proficiency on state reading assessments to be targeted for diagnostic reading assessments Yes
    State has literacy report card or other means to build momentum for improving adolescent literacy Other means of momentum: Schools must provide quarterly reports to the district superintendent on student progress toward increased reading achievement.
    State has aligned literacy standards with curricula, assessments and professional development activities Yes, the Just Read, Florida office in the Florida Department of Education heads up this work for curricula and professional development.

    Curricula:
  • Provide technical assistance to school districts in the development and implementation of research-based reading instruction and annually review and approve such plans
  • Review, evaluate and provide technical assistance to school districts on the implementation of the reading plan
  • Work with the Florida Center for Reading Research to provide information on research-based reading programs and effective reading in the content area strategies
  • Periodically review the state's standards for reading at all grade levels.


  • Professional Development
    :
  • Train highly effective reading coaches
  • Create multiple designations of effective reading instruction
  • Train K-12 teachers and school principals on effective content area-specific reading strategies
  • Periodically review teacher certification examinations, including alternative certification exams to ascertain whether the examinations measure the skills needed for research-based reading instruction and instructional strategies
  • Work with teacher preparation programs approved to integrate research-based reading strategies into programs.
  • As of July 2008, Just Read, Florida has 52 or the state's 75 school districts participating in reading intervention through Content Area Reading Professional Development (CAR-PD).

    State provides supports for local literacy plans Yes, statute provides a reading allocation to be used to implement a district K-12 comprehensive reading plan.  Guidance and approval for this plan is provided by Just Read, Florida! 

    Legislation in 2004 made reading funds a permanent part of the public school funding formula in an effort to extend reading support services to middle and high school. The "Middle Grade Reform Act" requires that all middle school reading and language arts programs be proven effective through research by 2008-09 and that middle schools with 25% or more students reading below grade level develop specific plans to improve reading among same-grade cohorts.

    Just Read, Florida! program, created by the legislature in 2006, provides technical assistance to school districts in the development and implementation of district plans. Just Read! Florida also reviews and approves district plans annually.
    State has strengthened teacher preparation/certification requirements to support adolescent literacy needs Yes. Just Read, Florida! office is required to work with teacher preparation programs to integrate research-based reading strategies into programs. In addition, the office is to periodically review teacher certification examinations to determine whether the exams measure the skills needed for reading instruction and instructional strategies for teaching reading in the content areas.
    State offers specialized certification/endorsement in adolescent literacy for content area teachers Yes, while the reading endorsement covers grades K-12 it is specifically targeted at the needs of teachers serving middle and high school students in need of intervention.  In addition, Content Area Reading Professional Development (CAR-PD) is targeted at improving the literacy instruction - specifically vocabulary and comprehension - of middle and high school content area teachers.
    State offers schoolwide professional development in adolescent literacy instruction FLA. ANN. STAT. 1001.215 was enacted in 2006 and includes the creation of the Just Read, Florida! office in the state department of education to:  
    • Train reading coaches to help coordinate and support ongoing staff development in literacy programs.
    • Create multiple designations of effective reading instruction which encourage all teachers to integrate reading instruction into their content areas.
    • Train K-12 teachers and school principals on effective content area-specific reading strategies. These strategies must be developed for all content areas in the K-12 curriculum.
    • Provide parents with information and strategies for assisting their children in reading in the content area.
    State has designated a state office or coordinator for adolescent literacy Yes, legislature created the Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR) which disseminates information through the Florida Progress Monitoring and Reporting Network.  
    State has standards that reflect literacy expectations explicit in grades 4-12 Yes
    Other efforts/initiatives
    • Governor Bush made reading a fundamental part of his state education agenda and established a statewide reading office - Just Read, Florida! - which coordinates state's K-12 literacy-related initiatives.
    • Legislation in 2006 included intensive reading and math intervention courses based on student performance of the state assessment tests. Districts were encouraged to use learning gains as well as other appropriate data and provide incentives to identify and reward high-performing teachers who teach credit recovery and intensive reading intervention courses or competency-based credit recovery courses.
    • Florida received an NGA Reading to Achieve grant in 2006 and has had multiple workgroup sessions charged with developing recommendations. Workgroups have invited researchers and experts to inform them and gather input which will result in recommendations to the legislative affairs office as well as general recommendations to the commissioner, the state board and the governor. A five year plan for K-12 literacy improvement will be completed by December 2007.
    • Each summer, Florida provides school level leadership teams including principals, literacy coaches and content area teachers the opportunity to plan for and receive literacy professional development through Reading Leadership Team Institutes and through a K-12 leadership conference. The K-12 leadership conference features leadership teams from Florida schools and districts who share their expertise and strategies for success through more than 300 breakout sessions and networking opportunities.

     

    Sources Interventions: FLA. STAT. §§ 1001.25, 1003-4156
    Diagnostic Reading Assessment: FLA. STAT. § 1008.25
    Literacy Report Card: FLA. STAT. § 1003.415 (Florida Middle Grades Reform Act)
    Aligned Literacy Standards:  FLA. STAT. § 1001.215 Section 8, FLA. ADMIN. CODE ANN. 6AER05-1
    Support for Local Literacy Plan: FLA. STAT. §§ 1001.215, 1011.62(9)
    Teacher Preparation/Certification: FLA. STAT. § 1001.215 Section 19
    Specialized Certification/Endorsement: FLA. STAT. §§ 1001.03, 1003.413; FLA. ADMIN. CODE ANN. 6A-4.006, 6A-4.0292, 6A-5.066
    Professional Development: FLA. STAT. §§ 1001.215
    Designated State Office: FLA. STAT. § 1001.215 Section 34
    Other Efforts/Initiatives: FLA. STAT. § 1001.215 (Just Read, Florida); FLA. STAT. § 1003.415 (Florida Middle Grades Reform Act); FLA. STAT. § 1008.25 (assessment) 

    Georgia
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers Yes
    State requires students performing below proficiency on state reading assessments to be targeted for diagnostic reading assessments Yes
    State has aligned literacy standards with curricula, assessments and professional development activities Yes
    State has strengthened teacher preparation/certification requirements to support adolescent literacy needs Yes
    State has designated a state office or coordinator for adolescent literacy No policy evident, but in practice the division of curriculum and instruction in the department of education functions as the state office or coordinator for adolescent literacy.
    State has standards that reflect literacy expectations explicit in grades 4-12 Yes
    Sources Interventions: GA. CODE ANN. §§ 20-2-290, 20-2-154
    Diagnostic Reading Assessment:  GA. CODE ANN. § 20-2-154
    Aligned Literacy Standards: Georgia Performance Standards
    Teacher Preparation/Certification: Georgia Master Teacher Program, GA. CODE ANN. GA. CODE ANN. § 20-2-154 20-2-204
    State Measures Progress: GA. CODE ANN. § 20-2-281, GA. COMP. R. & REGS. 160-3-1-.07
    Designated State Office: State Department of Education
    Literacy Expectations: Georgia Performance Standards

    Hawaii
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives

    Idaho
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State has strengthened teacher preparation/certification requirements to support adolescent literacy needs Yes, to be recertified, Title I, special education and K-8 teachers and administrators must take a three-credit course called "Idaho Comprehensive Literacy" or pass a reading assessment measures based on the Idaho comprehensive literacy plan.
    State offers schoolwide professional development in adolescent literacy instruction   
    Other efforts/initiatives In May 2007, a literacy summit was held to begin the development of a K-12 literacy initiative. The summit was used to build education stakeholders' knowledge of the state's literacy performance, current research on adolescent literacy, and instructional best practices. Following the summit, they began to develop a statewide information campaign and solicit public comment on proposed policy recommendations. Panel members briefed key stakeholders on the proposal, sought input on a plan for regional meetings and launched a web site initiative. Policy recommendations included:
    • A statewide report card to highlight successes and gaps in literacy across the state
    • Improving the ongoing formative and summative literacy assessments and district use of assessment data to inform development of curriculum and instruction
    • Strengthening teacher licensure and preparation requirements
    • Monitoring the state's efforts to improve literacy achievement with a progress monitoring tool.

    The recommendations and timeline were presented to the state department of education's middle school task force to review and incorporate into their working plan. The task force was established by the state superintendent to identify barriers to student achievement and develop recommendations that will be presented to the superintendent during the summer of 2008. 

    Sources Teacher Preparation/Certification: Idaho Code 33-1207A
    Other Efforts/Initiatives: National Governors Association's Center for Best Practices, Reading to Achieve: A Governor's Guide to Adolescent Literacy; Idaho Department of Education State Annual Performance Report, April 2008 Overview.

    Illinois
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers Yes
    State has literacy report card or other means to build momentum for improving adolescent literacy Yes, the state superintendent is to report annually to the leadership of the legislature on the results of the Continued Reading Improvement Block Grant Program and the progress being made in improving the reading skills of students in grades 7 through 12. 
    State provides supports for local literacy plans Yes
    State offers schoolwide professional development in adolescent literacy instruction Yes, the state's Continued Reading Improvement Block Grant Program funds are used by school districts to provide support to students in grades seven through 12 who are reading significantly below grade level. Professional development uses scientifically-based research and best practices and is delivered by providers approved by the state board of education.
    Other efforts/initiatives In 2004, the state department of education conducted a survey of adolescent reading in all districts in the state. The survey was called the Principal's Flip Chart for Reading in Grades 4-8.
    Sources Interventions: 105 IL COMP. STAT. § 5/2-3.51
    Literacy Report Card: 105 IL COMP. STAT. 5/2-3.51
    Support for Local Literacy Plan: 105 IL COMP. STAT. § 5/2-3.51a
    Professional Development: 105 IL COMP. STAT. § 5/2-3.51a
    Other Efforts/Initiatives: Principal Flip Chart for Reading, State Department of Education Web Site

    Indiana
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers Yes  
    State requires students performing below proficiency on state reading assessments to be targeted for diagnostic reading assessments No, but legislation passed in 2005 requires the department of education to develop a technical assistance manual for helping schools put together plans for reading instruction and to adopt reliable, valid reading instruments to diagnose reading and writing development.
    Sources Interventions: IND. CODE § 20-20-26-4

    Iowa
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers Yes

    Kansas
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives

    Kentucky
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers Yes, Kentucky legislation requires that students scoring poorly on the high school readiness exam, the college readiness exam or on the ACT WorkKeys have intervention strategies for accelerated learning incorporated into their learning plans.
    State requires students performing below proficiency on state reading assessments to be targeted for diagnostic reading assessments Yes
    State has aligned literacy standards with curricula, assessments and professional development activities Yes, in the Comprehensive School Improvement Plans.
    State provides supports for local literacy plans Department of education has literacy resources on Web site, including PERKS (Program Effectiveness Review for Kentucky Schools) documents with booklet to help novice teachers use tools to review and assess school's literacy program.
    State offers schoolwide professional development in adolescent literacy instruction Yes, the teachers' professional growth fund was created to provide teachers with high quality professional development in content knowledge in reading and language arts.
    State has standards that reflect literacy expectations explicit in grades 4-12 Yes, Program of Studies and Core Content reflect explicit expectations.
    Other efforts/initiatives Collaborative Center for Literacy Development: Early Childhood Through Adulthood (CCLD) is a partnership among eight state universities, the National Center for Family Literacy, the Kentucky Department of Education,  Kentucky Adult Education and others interested in literacy development. CCLD provides professional development and conducts research on adolescent literacy issues across the state.

    An Adolescent Literacy Task Force, funded by a grant from the National Association of State Boards of Education was the impetus for a 2008 Joint Resolution that calls for a statewide adolescent literacy framework to be in place by December 2009.
    Sources Interventions: KY. REV. STAT. ANN. §§ 158.840, 158.6459
    Aligned Literacy Standards: KY. REV. STAT. ANN. §§ 158.649, 158.6451, 158.6453
    Support Local Literacy Plans: Kentucky Department of Education Literacy Resources
    Professional Development: KY. REV. STAT. ANN. 156-553
    Other Efforts/Initiatives: National Governors Association's Center for Best Practices, Reading to Achieve: A Governor's Guide to Adolescent Literacy

    Louisiana
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers No, however schools must offer a minimum of 50 hours per subject of summer remediation and retest opportunities at no cost to students. Students may not be promoted to the 5th grade until they score at or above the basic achievement level in English language arts.
    State has strengthened teacher preparation/certification requirements to support adolescent literacy needs Yes, legislation requires hours in the teaching of reading to be separated from English courses, and that courses in the teaching of reading emphasize techniques of teaching reading and the correction of student reading problems.
    State has standards that reflect literacy expectations explicit in grades 4-12 Yes
    Sources Teacher Preparation/Certification: LA. REV. STAT. § 17:7.1
    Literacy Expectations: Louisiana Content Standards, Benchmarks, and Grade Expectations for English Language Arts

    Maine
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers No policy evident, but in practice state appears to provide interventions since secondary schools are required to provide remediation and acceleration based on assessment data to receive Comprehensive School Reform funds. Technical assistance is provided to these schools to implement the school reform provisions and literacy supports.
    Sources Diagnostic Reading Assessments: NGA's Reading to Achieve

    Maryland
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers Yes
    Sources Interventions: MD. EDUC. CODE ANN. § 7-202

    Massachusetts
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State has literacy report card or other means to build momentum for improving adolescent literacy Other means of building momentum: Massachusetts received a "Reading to Achieve" grant in 2006 and the result is a preK-12 literacy plan aligned to the department of education's goals of closing existing literacy achievement gaps and preventing new gaps from emerging. The state department of education began implementing the recommendations in January 2007, and it is anticipated that the fully implemented literacy plan will be in place in 2012. The plan will require collaboration of the governor, the boards of education, higher education, early education and care, the University of Massachusetts, and the business and philanthropic communities. It is anticipated that the fully implemented literacy plan will be instrumental in helping all students achieve proficiency and beyond in reading, writing and language development and prepare all students for success in college and the workplace.
    State has strengthened teacher preparation/certification requirements to support adolescent literacy needs Yes
    Other efforts/initiatives Literacy task force subcommittees have proposed action plans for a P-20 literacy plan. Action plans include:
    • Revising curriculum frameworks to establish grade and course-level standards, and to integrate literacy skills and content area teaching
    • Implementing effective, standards-based, research-informed curricular and instructional practices for fundamental reading and writing skills, literacy across the curriculum and interventions for struggling readers and writers
    • Revising educator licensure and preparation programs
    • Developing collaborative partnerships among all stakeholders to improve literacy proficiency across the state.
    Sources Literacy Report Card: National Governors Association's Center for Best Practices, Reading to Achieve: A Governor's Guide to Adolescent Literacy
    Teacher Preparation/Certification: 603 MASS. REGS. CODE 7.06
    Other Efforts/Initiatives: National Governors Association's Center for Best Practices, Reading to Achieve: A Governor's Guide to Adolescent Literacy

    Michigan
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State has strengthened teacher preparation/certification requirements to support adolescent literacy needs Yes, in order to advance to a professional certification, a teacher must complete a course of study in the diagnosis and remediation of reading disabilities and differential instruction. The study must include field experience. This study may be completed as part of a teacher preparation program or during the first six years of employment in classroom training.
    State has standards that reflect literacy expectations explicit in grades 4-12 Yes
    Sources Teacher Preparation/Certification:  MICH. COMP. LAWS § 380.1531
    Literacy Expectations: Grade Level Content Expectations, High School Content Expectations - English Language Arts

    Minnesota
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers Yes
    State requires students performing below proficiency on state reading assessments to be targeted for diagnostic reading assessments Yes
    State has aligned literacy standards with curricula, assessments and professional development activities Yes 
    State provides supports for local literacy plans No policy is evident, but in practice that state appears to provide support for local efforts. State department of education developed A Model Secondary (6-12) Plan for Reading Intervention and Development in January 2006.
    State has strengthened teacher preparation/certification requirements to support adolescent literacy needs Yes
    State offers schoolwide professional development in adolescent literacy instruction Yes, the required 125 clock hours of professional development must include the comprehensive, scientifically- based reading instruction that includes at least instruction in five areas of reading: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and text comprehension. 
    Sources Interventions: MINN. STAT. § 120B.12
    Aligned Literacy Standards: MINN. R. 3501.0535 - 3501.0550
    Support for Local Literacy Plan: A Model Secondary (6-12) Plan for Reading Intervention and Development
    Teacher Preparation/Certification: MINN. STAT. § 122A.18 Subd. 2A
    Professional Development:  MINN. STAT. §§ 122A.06 (4), 120B.12

    Mississippi
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives

    Missouri
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers Yes
    State offers middle/high school teachers a mentoring/induction program with a literacy component Yes, statute established the Missouri teacher corps program to improve elementary reading skills and basic student achievement in remedial reading. An eight-week intensive training institute for the recruits is to provide skills needed to assist them in teaching. The recruits must be assigned by the corps to public school districts on the basis of local need.
    Sources Interventions:  MO. REV. STAT. § 167.343
    Mentoring/Induction Program: MO. REV. STAT. § 168.430

    Montana
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives

    Nebraska
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives

    Nevada
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives

    New Hampshire
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives

    New Jersey
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State provides supports for local literacy plans 2007 legislation appropriated $750,000 for the Governor's Literacy Initiative.  Funds were to be used for providing grants to districts to improve instruction in language arts. The commissioner of education formed a Task Force on Middle Grades Literacy Education to raise the profile of the literacy crisis in grades four through eight.
    Other efforts/initiatives The commissioner of education has formed a Task Force on Middle Grades Literacy Education to raise the profile of the literacy crisis in grades four through eight.

    The state has developed a model, "Literacy is Essential to Adolescent Development and Success" (LEADS), which was piloted in three school districts in 2006. Over 600 students participated, and 114 teachers were trained to teach in the pilot classrooms. The preliminary data was positive and the students will be tracked to determine overall gains in tests administered in spring 2007. The pilot districts will continue to receive assistance as they develop curriculum and integrate the model into the regular school year framework. An interdepartmental coordinating committee will ensure that the varied state offices disseminate consistent policies and guidance across the state. 
    Sources Support for Local Literacy Plan: 2007 N.J. ANN. LEG. STAT. 111, Report of the NJ Task Force on Middle Grade Literacy Education
    Other Efforts/Initiatives: National Governors Association's Center for Best Practices, Reading to Achieve: A Governor's Guide to Adolescent Literacy

    New Mexico
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers Yes
    State has literacy report card or other means to build momentum for improving adolescent literacy Yes
    State provides supports for local literacy plans Yes
    State has strengthened teacher preparation/certification requirements to support adolescent literacy needs Yes
    State offers schoolwide professional development in adolescent literacy instruction Yes, under the middle and high school literacy initiative, professional development is to be ongoing and equal to that which is validated in supporting research.
    Other efforts/initiatives The Public School Reading Proficiency Fund has been created in the state treasury. The fund is to be administered by the department of education and appropriated to the department to distribute awards to public middle, junior and senior high schools that implement innovative, scientifically based reading programs. 
    Sources Interventions:  N.M. STAT. ANN. § 22-13-29 
    Literacy Report Card: 
    N.M. STAT. ANN. § 22-13-29
    Support for Local Literacy Plan: N.M. STAT. ANN. 22-8-43
    Teacher Preparation/Certification:  N.M. STAT. ANN. § 22-2-2(Z) (BB and CC), N.M. ADMIN. CODE 6.61.2.10
    Professional Development: N.M STAT. ANN. § 22-1-1.2
    Other Efforts/Initiatives: N.M. STAT. ANN. § 22-8-43

    New York
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers No, however in practice the school district is required to provide academic intervention services if a student is at risk of not achieving the state's learning standards in English Language Arts or if the student fails to meet proficiency on the state standardized English Language Arts test.
    State requires students performing below proficiency on state reading assessments to be targeted for diagnostic reading assessments Yes
    State has aligned literacy standards with curricula, assessments and professional development activities Yes, the English Language Arts Standards are the basis for the state assessments in middle school and the Regents Comprehensive Examination in English at the high school level.  The learning standards are used at the local level to develop curriculum and professional development activities.
    State provides supports for local literacy plans In practice.  The department of education offers Web resources and core curricula guidance materials for districts to develop local curriculum and instruction plans, including literacy. The Web sites include guidance materials that support the English Language Arts Learning Standards.
    State has strengthened teacher preparation/certification requirements to support adolescent literacy needs Yes
    State has designated a state office or coordinator for adolescent literacy In practice. The Office of Curriculum, Instruction and Instructional Technology works with the office of Early Education and Reading Initiatives to support increased adolescent literacy achievement.
    State has standards that reflect literacy expectations explicit in grades 4-12 Yes
    Sources Diagnostic Reading Assessment: Part 100 Regulation: 100.2 (ee)
    Aligned Literacy Standards: N.Y. COMP. CODES R. & REGS. § 211
    Support for Local Literacy Plan:  New York State English Language Arts Learning Standards Core Curriculum and New York State Education Department Curriculum Resources
    Teacher Preparation/Certification: N.Y. COMP. CODES R. & REGS. § 52.21
    State Measures Progress: N.Y. COMP. CODES R. & REGS. § 211
    Literacy Expectations: New York State Education Department Curriculum Resources

    North Carolina
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers Yes
    State has aligned literacy standards with curricula, assessments and professional development activities Yes
    State provides supports for local literacy plans Focusing on Literacy in the Middle Grades provides $5.7 million for 100 additional middle school literacy coaches (were already 100 literacy coaches established in 2006) along with $2 million in support of the N.C. Teacher Academy to provide training in reading.
    State has strengthened teacher preparation/certification requirements to support adolescent literacy needs Yes
    State offers middle/high school teachers a mentoring/induction program with a literacy component In 2006, Governor Easley established a literacy coaching program which identified the lowest-performing eighth grades. These schools select one teacher to receive training from the state teacher academy to become a literacy coach.
    State has standards that reflect literacy expectations explicit in grades 4-12 Yes
    Other efforts/initiatives The department of public instruction collaborates with the Southern Regional Education Board and LearnNC to offer cross-disciplinary middle and high school teams intensive training in Reading and Writing for Learning.

    The reading advisory committee has developed a state strategic plan for reading literacy with extensive recommendations for policy and practice enhancements. The plan will go to the state board for approval.  Actions in the plan include:
    • Amending the curriculum to include literacy strategies in each content area and a focus on digital reading
    • Developing student assessment processes that provide for open-ended and performance assessments
    • Providing opportunities for leadership development for principals and central office staff
    • Enhancing preparation and professional development for elementary, middle and high school teachers
    • Analyzing needs for policy revision and development.
    Sources Interventions: N.C. GEN. STAT. § 115C-105.41
    Aligned Literacy Standards: 16 NCAC §§ 06D-0305, 06D-0505; N.C. GEN. STAT. § 115C-174.11
    Support for Local Literacy Plan: 9 NCAC § 2B
    Teacher Preparation/Certification: N.C. GEN. STAT. § 115C-81.2
    Mentoring/Induction:  9 NCAC § 2B
    Literacy Expectations: English Language Arts Standard Course of Study
    Other Efforts/Initiatives: 9 NCAC § 2B

    North Dakota
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives

    Ohio
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers Yes, for high school students only.
    State provides supports for local literacy plans Yes
    State offers schoolwide professional development in adolescent literacy instruction Yes, up to $5,000,000 in each fiscal year is to be used for educator training in literacy for classroom teachers, administrators and literacy specialists.
    State has designated a state office or coordinator for adolescent literacy In practice. The Ohio Reading Improvement Office is housed in the state department of education and facilitates communications with other agency divisions to ensure alignment across the state's literacy and teacher training activities. The office also offers professional development, provides an online adolescent literacy journal and runs a grant competition to fund research-based literacy programs in low-performing secondary schools.
    Sources Interventions: OHIO REV. CODE ANN. § 3301.07.11
    Support for Local Literacy Plan:  OHIO REV. CODE ANN. § 3301.07.11, Section 269.40.10
    Professional Development: OHIO REV. CODE ANN. § 3301.07.11, Section 269.20.20
    Designated State Office:  National Governors Association's Center for Best Practices, Reading to Achieve:  A Governor's Guide to Adolescent Literacy

    Oklahoma
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers Yes
    State requires students performing below proficiency on state reading assessments to be targeted for diagnostic reading assessments Yes
    State has aligned literacy standards with curricula, assessments and professional development activities Yes
    State has strengthened teacher preparation/certification requirements to support adolescent literacy needs Yes
    State offers schoolwide professional development in adolescent literacy instruction Yes, the Oklahoma Commission for Teacher Preparation develops and administers professional development institutes to training school teachers in reading education.
    Sources Interventions: OKLA. STAT. tit. 70 § 1210.522
    Diagnostic Reading Assessment: OKLA. ADMIN. CODE 210:15-27-1
    Aligned Literacy Standards:  OKLA. STAT. tit. 70 § 11-103.6
    Teacher Preparation/Certification: OKLA. STAT. tit. 70 § 6-200
    Professional Development: OKLA. STAT. tit. 70 § 6-200

    Oregon
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives

    Pennsylvania
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives

    Rhode Island
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers Yes, Rhode Island mandates "personal literacy plans" for struggling readers in K-3 and this requirement was extended to grades 4 and 5 in 2004. Other grades have been phased in over the past few years, and seniors were added in the fall of 2007. By 2011 all students reading below grade level will be required to have a literacy plan and the progress of each student receiving intervention services will need to be monitored. 

    Dropout prevention legislation passed in 2007 mandates "Comprehensive supplemental education programs for middle school students who are below grade level in reading and math."
    State requires students performing below proficiency on state reading assessments to be targeted for diagnostic reading assessments Yes
    State has literacy report card or other means to build momentum for improving adolescent literacy Yes, the State Literacy Advisory Panel helps support momentum by providing advice concerning adolescent literacy including the creation, dissemination and regular updating of pertinent resource materials for RI schools.  In addition, the commissioner of education is to report to the governor and the legislature regarding the implementation of the literacy program.
    State provides supports for local literacy plans Yes
    State has strengthened teacher preparation/certification requirements to support adolescent literacy needs No, but 2000 legislation established a panel to review (1) the research on how reading is learned and (2) the knowledge and skills teachers need to deliver effective reading instruction. The panel's findings were used to develop a statewide reading success institute for educators.
    State offers schoolwide professional development in adolescent literacy instruction Yes, the Professional Development Investment Fund supports teachers in improving reading instruction and integrating reading throughout the curriculum.
    State has designated a state office or coordinator for adolescent literacy In practice. The State Literacy Advisory Panel provides advice concerning literacy programs and efforts.
    Other efforts/initiatives Governor Carcieri and the state department of education have provided a framework for schools and districts to create middle and high school literacy programs and services that incorporate state assessment, intervention and progress-monitoring requirements. Officials in the state monitor school and district implementation of a regulation requiring schools to provide interventions for students reading below grade level. Schools and districts must report to the state the number of students performing below grade level, the types of intervention employed, the progress of schoolwide literacy programs and the number of students with personal literacy plans.
    Sources Interventions: R.I. GEN. LAWS §§ 16-67-4, 16-67.1-2
    Diagnostic Reading Assessments: R.I. GEN. LAWS §§ 16-67-2, 16-67-4
    Literacy Report Card: R.I. GEN. LAWS § 16-67-4, Regulations of the Board of Regents for Elementary and Secondary Education Regarding Public High Schools and Ensuring Literacy for Students Entering High Schools
    Teacher Preparation/Certification: R.I. GEN. LAWS §§ 16-11.3-1, 16-11.3-2
    Professional Development: R.I. GEN. LAWS § 16-7.1-10
    State Measures Progress:  Regulations of the Board of Regents for Elementary and Secondary Education Regarding Public High Schools and Ensuring Literacy for Students Entering High Schools
    Designated State Office:  CODE OF R.I. RULES § 08-010-011

    South Carolina
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers Yes
    Other efforts/initiatives South Carolina has extended a K-5 reading initiative to middle grades and high schools. The initiative is a partnership between the department of education, the National Council of Teachers of English, and the University of South Carolina that has trained coaches over a four-year period. As part of the four-year training, middle grades literacy coaches earn 36 hours of credit in graduate courses in literacy instruction and participate in monthly meetings. Many of the coaches have continued on to earn the nine additional credits required for a doctorate in language and literacy.
    Sources Interventions: S.C. CODE ANN. § 59-1-420
    Other Efforts/Initiatives: National Governors Association's Center for Best Practices, Reading to Achieve: A Governor's Guide to Adolescent Literacy

    South Dakota
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives

    Tennessee
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers Yes
    State has literacy report card or other means to build momentum for improving adolescent literacy Yes
    State has strengthened teacher preparation/certification requirements to support adolescent literacy needs Yes
    State offers schoolwide professional development in adolescent literacy instruction Yes, the Education Reform Act of 2001 requires a high quality professional development system to support every teacher in developing student reading proficiency.
    Sources Interventions: TENN. CODE ANN. §§ 49-1-904, 49-6-1013
    Literacy Report Card: TENN. CODE ANN. § 49-1-211
    Teacher Preparation/Certification: TENN. CODE ANN. § 49-5-108
    Professional Development: TENN. CODE ANN. § 49-6-1013

    Texas
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers Yes, school districts must provide additional reading instruction and intervention to 7th grade students to address areas of need identified by the reading instrument. Commissioner is to adopt rules requiring school districts receiving Title I funding to use those funds to provide supplemental education services in conjunction with accelerated instruction.
    State requires students performing below proficiency on state reading assessments to be targeted for diagnostic reading assessments Yes
    State has aligned literacy standards with curricula, assessments and professional development activities New reading and writing curriculum standards were approved by the Board of Education on May 24, 2008.
    State has strengthened teacher preparation/certification requirements to support adolescent literacy needs No, however reading-related provisions of 2007 legislation direct the commissioner of education to establish teacher academies for teachers providing reading instruction for students in grades 6-8 by June 1, 2008. Attendance in a reading academy is required for all teachers of reading in grades 6-8 on campuses rated academically unacceptable based on reading assessments. 
    State offers schoolwide professional development in adolescent literacy instruction Yes, Teacher Reading Academies offer professional development for teachers at the sixth through eighth grade levels.
    Sources Interventions: TX. CODE ANN. § 28.006
    Diagnostic Reading Assessment:  TX. CODE ANN. § 28.006 (C)1
    Teacher Preparation/Certification: TX. CODE ANN. § 28.006
    Professional Development: TX. CODE ANN. § 21.4551

    Utah
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    Sources

    Vermont
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives

    Virginia
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers Yes
    State requires students performing below proficiency on state reading assessments to be targeted for diagnostic reading assessments Yes
    State has aligned literacy standards with curricula, assessments and professional development activities Yes
    State provides supports for local literacy plans Yes, through the Office of School Improvement with school-level and division-level academic reviews.
    State has strengthened teacher preparation/certification requirements to support adolescent literacy needs Yes
    State has designated a state office or coordinator for adolescent literacy In practice. The English Coordinator K-12 and the Middle Grades English Specialist for the Virginia Department of Education's Office of Middle and High School Instructional Services coordinate adolescent literacy for the state.
    State has standards that reflect literacy expectations explicit in grades 4-12 Yes
    Other efforts/initiatives The department of education, in conjunction with a variety of consortia and universities, provides professional development in literacy for teachers in grades four through twelve. A literacy initiative for middle school teachers is supported by the School University regional Network at the College of William and Mary and a four-part video seminar on reading comprehensive delivered by the Southside Virginia Regional Technology Consortium for teachers in grades four through eight who teach in the south central regions of Virginia. James Madison University and the Virginia Department of Education provide summer content/teaching academies in core areas, including courses for secondary and special education teachers on reading and writing.

    To build momentum for improving adolescent literacy, the board of education held an Adolescent Literacy Policy Summit on May 1, 2007. A result of the summit was the reopening of the standards of accreditation by the board of education.

    The Virginia Department of Education works with the Appalachia Regional Comprehensive Center (ARCC) through a grant to build the SEA's capacity to assist divisions with the implementation of effective literacy programs across the curriculum. The State Improvement Grant (SIG) & State Personnel Development Grant (SPDG) promote the establishment of comprehensive literacy plans in secondary schools in participating divisions to meet the needs of all students, but particularly students with mild-moderate disabilities who are at risk of school failure.
    Sources Interventions: 8 VA. ADMIN. CODE §§ 20-131-30, 20-131-100
    Diagnostic Reading Assessment: 8 VA. ADMIN. CODE § 20-131-310 B
    Aligned Literacy Standards: 8 VA. ADMIN. CODE §§ 22.1-253.13:1, 22.1-253.13:5,  English Standards of Learning, Secondary Schools, Instructional Services
    Support for Local Literacy Plan: 8 VA. ADMIN. CODE § 20-131-310
    Teacher Preparation/Certification: 8 VA. ADMIN. CODE §§ 20-21-130, 20-21-150, 20-21-240
    Professional Development:  VA. CODE ANN. § 22.1-208.1
    State Measures Progress: 8 VA. ADMIN. CODE §§ 22.1-253.13:3
    Literacy Expectations: 8 VA. ADMIN. CODE §§ 22.1-253.13:1, 22.1-253.13:5, English Standards of Learning, Secondary Schools, Instructional Services
    Other Efforts/Initiatives: National Governors Association's Center for Best Practices, Reading to Achieve: A Governor's Guide to Adolescent Literacy

    Washington
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers Yes
    State requires students performing below proficiency on state reading assessments to be targeted for diagnostic reading assessments Yes
    State provides supports for local literacy plans Yes
    State offers schoolwide professional development in adolescent literacy instruction Yes, through the educational service districts.
    Sources Interventions: WASH. REV. CODE §§ 28A.415, 180-105-020
    Diagnostic Reading Assessments: 2007 Legislation SB 6023, Chapter 354
    Support for Local Literacy Plan: WASH. REV. CODE § 28A-415
    Professional Development: WASH. REV. CODE 28A.415

    West Virginia
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State has aligned literacy standards with curricula, assessments and professional development activities Yes, the 21st Century Reading and English Language Arts Content Standards and Objectives specify the objectives in reading, writing, listening and speaking for the 4th through the 8th grades.
    State has standards that reflect literacy expectations explicit in grades 4-12 Yes
    Sources Aligned Literacy Standards: 21st Century Reading and English Language Arts Content Standards and Objectives for West Virginia Schools, W. VA. CODE ANN. § 18-9A-22, W. VA. CODE ST. R. § 126-44A-1
    Literacy Expectations: W. VA. CODE ST. R. § 126-44A

    Wisconsin
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives
    State requires schools to provide interventions for struggling readers Yes
    State has aligned literacy standards with curricula, assessments and professional development activities Yes
    State provides supports for local literacy plans In practice. The department of public instruction provides technical assistance and has published a toolkit that focuses on improving literacy.
    State has strengthened teacher preparation/certification requirements to support adolescent literacy needs Yes
    State has standards that reflect literacy expectations explicit in grades 4-12 Yes
    Other efforts/initiatives The state superintendent has convened an adolescent literacy task force to develop a comprehensive adolescent literacy plan for Wisconsin. The target for completion of the task force's work is Winter 2008.

    The state has received a Wallace Foundation grant that provides support for the professional growth of principals. The "Wallace Fellows" are participating in a two-year project to transform school leadership in Wisconsin and develop a state and national model for a master administrator license.
    Sources Interventions:  New Wisconsin Promise
    Literacy Report Card:  WIS. STAT. ANN. § 115.38
    Aligned Literacy Standards: Wisconsin Knowledge Concepts Examination
    Support for Local Literacy Plan: Adolescent Learning Toolkit
    Teacher Preparation/Certification: WIS. STAT. ANN. § 118.015
    State Measures Progress: Assessment Laws and Regulations Section 1116
    Literacy Expectations: Wisconsin Model Academic Standards for English Language Arts

    Wyoming
    State Adolescent Literacy Initiatives



    © 2013 by the Education Commission of the States (ECS). All rights reserved. ECS is the only nationwide, nonpartisan interstate compact devoted to education.

    To request permission to excerpt part of this publication, either in print or electronically, please fax a request to the attention of the ECS Communications Department, 303.296.8332 or e-mail ecs@ecs.org.

    Helping State Leaders Shape Education Policy