Education Commission of the States • 700 Broadway, Suite 810 • Denver, CO 80203-3442 • 303.299.3600 • Fax: 303.296.8332 • www.ecs.org
State-Level Coordinating and/or Governing Agency
State-Level Coordinating and/or Governing Agency
Alabama : Postsecondary Governance Structures

The Alabama Commission on Higher Education, the statutory coordinating agency for public postsecondary education, was established in 1969. The Commission is composed of 12 members, 10 appointed by the governor and 1 each by the lieutenant governor and speaker of the house. All are subject to confirmation by the Senate. No more than 2 members can be from any one congressional district and each is charged with representing the state as a whole. Commissioners serve 9-year terms. The statutory authority of the Commission includes planning, coordination, budget review for individual institutions, recommendations of a consolidated budget and program review for the state's public senior and junior institutions. Program review involves new program approval authority for all public postsecondary institutions. The Commission has advisory authority relative to the review of existing programs. The commission also has approval authority for off-campus instruction and programs offered in the state by out-of-state institutions.

The State Board of Education is a constitutional entity with responsibility not only for K-12 but also for governing 1 upper-division college, 3 junior colleges, 18 community colleges and 7 technical colleges.

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Alaska : Postsecondary Governance Structures

The University of Alaska, established in 1917, is the single, multicampus public institution of postsecondary education in the state. The University is governed by the Board of Regents, which is constitutionally founded, and consists of 11 members appointed by the governor and approved by the Legislature. Ten of the members serve 8-year terms and 1, a student, serves for 2 years. The Board has statutory authority for all public postsecondary education, which includes three regional university campuses, community colleges and centers.

A restructuring in the mid-1980's eliminated the position of college president and the separate community boards at 10 of the 11 community colleges. These colleges were grouped into 3 districts and now serve as branch institutions of the 3 campuses of the University of Alaska in Fairbanks, Anchorage and Juneau. The community of Valdez was able to retain independent status for its community college and its own governing board by agreeing to underwrite 30% of the school's cost.

The Commission on Postsecondary Education, established by statute in 1974, is the coordinating agency for all postsecondary institutions and programs. There are 14 members of the Commission: 2 members from the Legislature, 2 members from the regents of the University of Alaska, 1 member of the governing body of a private institution, 1 member representing proprietary institutions, 1 member representing the State Board of Education, 1 member representing the State Advisory Council on Community Colleges, 1 student member and 5 members broadly and equitably representative of the general public. Members of the Commission serve from 1- to 7-year terms depending on the sector they represent with a 3-year term being the average. The 5 general public members are appointed by the governor with approval of the Legislature and the other 9 members are designated by their respective agencies. The Commission is a department within the Department of Education and Early Development for budgetary purposes only. The Commission's executive does not report to the Commissioner of Education or to the State Board of Education.

The Commission's responsibilities include: (1) coordinating development of comprehensive plans for the orderly, systematic growth of public and private postsecondary education, including community colleges and occupational education, and submitting recommendations on the need for and location of new facilities and programs; (2) providing advisory services to the governor, the legislature, other state and federal officials and to the governing boards of public and private institutions of postsecondary education; (3) reviewing and commenting on the annual budgets and capital outlay requests of the public university and private colleges; (4) functioning as the state agency for appropriate sections and titles of the Federal Higher Education Act of 1965; and (5) serving as adjudicator when necessary in consortia agreements. The Commission is not a cabinet department, and its executive director is appointed by and serves at the pleasure of the Commission.

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Arizona : Postsecondary Governance Structures The Arizona Board of Regents was created to govern the 3 universities in 1945. The board is composed of 12 members, 8 appointed by the governor with the consent of the state senate, who each serve for 8-year terms, and two students appointed by the governor with the consent of the senate, who each serve a 1-year term. The governor and state superintendent of public instruction serve as voting ex-officio members by the virtue of the office that he or she holds. The board has jurisdiction, control and broad general administrative powers as provided by the state constitution and statutes. Their responsibilities include coordination, planning, budget review and approval and program approval as well as other functions. Although the board is not a formal cabinet department, a close coordinating relationship between the governor's office and the major state government department head is maintained through frequent planning sessions. The executive director of the Board of Regents represents the universities at these meetings.

The Commission for Postsecondary Education was created by executive order to assume the planning responsibilities under Section 1202 and 1203 of the Federal Higher Education Act amendments of 1972 and to administer other assigned programs. The commission continues in existence and is composed of 13 members appointed by the governor for 3-year terms. Of these members, 1 represents the general public, 4 represent public institutions, 6 represent private/nonprofit and proprietary institutions, and 2 represent secondary education.

In 2003, the legislature abolished the State Board of Directors for Community Colleges. To this date, there has been no action to replace the board with another governing entity.
Arkansas : Postsecondary Governance Structures The Arkansas Department of Higher Education, established in 1971, functions as a statutory cabinet department of the state government and is charged with the coordination of postsecondary education in Arkansas. The department administers the policies set by the Higher Education Coordinating Board, which replaced the State Board of Higher Education in 1997. Consisting of 12 members who are appointed to 6-year terms by the governor, the Higher Education Coordinating Board has statutory responsibility for the planning and coordination of public 4-and 2-year institutions. The Board also has statutory authority for budget review and recommendation, approval of institutions role and scope, and the review and approval of new or existing degree programs for public postsecondary institutions. The executive officer of the agency is appointed by the Higher Education Coordinating Board with substantial input from the Presidents Council and is confirmed and serves at the governor's pleasure.

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California : Postsecondary Governance Structures In 1974, the California Postsecondary Education Commission replaced the Coordinating Council for Higher Education, with duties and powers greater than those assigned to its predecessor. The commission is not a regulatory agency or governing board. Rather, it is an advisory group to the legislature, governor and postsecondary institutions regarding major education policies. It is required to establish a statewide database containing extensive information gathered from all institutions, public and private. The commission has statutory authority to review institutional budgets, to advise on the need for and location of new campuses, and to review all proposals for new academic programs in the public sector. The commission's primary purpose is to prevent unnecessary duplication and to coordinate efforts among the education segments. The commission's efforts are directed by its work plan, which sets out education goals and statewide issues, particularly those that concern large numbers of colleges, universities and proprietary schools.

The commission is composed of 16 members. 9 members are appointed from the general public - 3 by the governor, 3 by the Senate Rules Committee and 3 by the California Assembly speaker. Five members represent various sectors of education 1 member from the Board of Regents of the University of California, 1 member from the Board of Trustees of the California State University, 1 member from the Board of Governors of the California Community College, 1 member from the State Board of Education, and 1 member appointed by the governor to represent independent California colleges and universities. Length of service on the commission varies depending upon the appointing body: public members serve 6-year terms, education sector representatives serve at the pleasure of the appointing authority, the independent colleges representative serves 3 years, and the student representatives serve 2 years. The remaining 2 members are students, both appointed by the governor. The commission is not a cabinet department. The executive officer is appointed by the commission and serves at its pleasure.
Colorado : Postsecondary Governance Structures The Commission on Higher Education is the statutory agency for planning and coordination of postsecondary education in Colorado. State responsibility for higher education coordination was established in 1965, with responsibilities amended formally 10 times since 1970. The most recent changes were made in 1995.

Legislative desire for more centralized policy and coordination of the state's public postsecondary education reflects the 1985 legislature abolishing the existing commission and reestablishing a new commission consisting of 9 public members appointed by the governor with the consent of the senate, each serving 4-year terms. Among its responsibilities are: (1) developing percentages of total state allocation for each governing board of higher education and presenting its decisions to the governor and legislature; (2) reviewing and approving new academic and vocational program proposals; (3) defining geographic and programmatic service areas for extension offerings; (4) prescribing uniform standards for development of capital construction programs, reviewing and approving program plans for capital construction projects or property leasing, and recommending capital construction and funding priorities to the legislature and governor; (5) establishing enrollment policies and differentiated admission and program standards consistent with institutional roles and missions; (6) developing review criteria and distributing allocations for institutional quality incentive grants recognizing centers of excellence; (7) establishing and enforcing student transfer agreement, including those resulting from reciprocal interstate exchanges; (8) adopting and implementing affirmative action policies for the commission, governing boards and institutions; (9) undertaking statistical, programmatic and other higher education studies; (10) pursuing foundation and other grants for state programs; and (11) seeking cooperation and advice of public and private institutions and governing boards in the state. The executive director is appointed by the governor and approved by the legislature, serves as a member of the governor's cabinet, and is, by statute, the executive director of the Department of Higher Education. This department comprises the commission, the state's public institutions of higher education, the Colorado Historical Society, the Council for the Arts, the Colorado Student Loan Program, the Division of Private Occupational Schools and the Colorado Advance Technology Institute.
Connecticut : Postsecondary Governance Structures The Board of Governors for Higher Education, staffed by the Department of Higher Education, was created March 1, 1983. The Board of Governors consists of 11 lay members 7 appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Senate and 4 appointed by the leadership of the House and Senate, each approving one member. The initial chairman was appointed by the governor for a 2-year term. Since then the Board has elected its own chairman. Board members serve staggered 4-year terms. As the coordinating agency for the public higher education system, the Board of Governors is responsible for statewide planning, budget development and policymaking. It is charged with preparing criteria to govern the merger or closure of institutions; making decisions to merge or close institutions; providing for the initiation, consolidation or termination of programs; and evaluating institutional effectiveness. The Board also is responsible for preparing annual consolidated operating and capital budgets and for maintaining academic quality through licensure and accreditation of programs and institutions, both public and independent. The Commissioner of Higher Education is appointed by the Board and serves at its pleasure.

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Delaware : Postsecondary Governance Structures

The Delaware Higher Education Commission was established by executive order in 1974 and revised by executive order in 1977 and 1991. In June 2001, the General Assembly formalized the relationship between the Department of Education and the Higher Education Commission in statute. The law expanded on provisions of existing executive orders, added new responsibilities and reduced the number of members from 21 to 13. Five members represent the general public, 4 represent public institutions, 2 represent private institutions and 2 represent state departments. Members are appointed by the governor to 3-year terms and legislative consent is not required. The executive director is appointed by and reports to the chairman of the Higher Education Commission and the secretary of education. The Commission is responsible for student aid, data collection and reporting, and oversight of interstate agreements. While the Commission is not a cabinet department, the Commission is a division of the Department of Education, which is a cabinet department.

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District of Columbia : Postsecondary Governance Structures The University of the District of Columbia Board of Trustees governs the university. Of the 16 members on the board, 11 are appointed by the mayor with the advice and consent of the D.C. Council, 3 are alumni members chosen by the University of the District of Columbia Alumni Association, 1 is a student, and the president of the university serves as the ex-officio member by virtue of the elected office he or she holds. The term of the student members is 1 year, and the terms of the other members are 5 years, with initial terms staggered from 2 to 5 years.

The Board of Governors of the District of Columbia David A. Clarke School of Law consists of 7 members. Four are appointed by the mayor, with the advice and consent of the D.C. Council; 2 are appointed by the District of Columbia Bar; and 1 is elected by the alumni through a postal-ballot election.

The District of Columbia does not have a designated office of secretary of education, and the university's governing board does not serve as a cabinet department. The District has an Office of Postsecondary Education, Research and Assistance (OPERA) within the State Education Office, which serves as the state agency for postsecondary education. OPERA provides postsecondary education information to DC residents and administers federal grants to DC higher education institutions It disseminates statistical data and acts as a liaison between agencies and higher education institutions. OPERA develops and participates in local, state, and federal postsecondary education programs (such as career fairs and educational conferences) and administers programs including grants, loans, and internships.

The Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education, D.C. Advisory Committee on Education, is the advisory body to the Office of Postsecondary Education, Research and Assistance required by the Higher Education Act of 1965, section 1203E, and also assists with policy matters pertaining to related programs. The Mayor's Office of Policy and Evaluation advises the mayor on education issues, and assists in performing statutory duties and responsibilities required by the D.C. Code, Municipal Regulations and Federal Laws.

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Florida : Postsecondary Governance Structures The chief governing body for public education in Florida is the State Board of Education, which has been in place since 1845. Effective January 2003, the State Board of Education will be replaced by a governor-appointed, 7-member Florida Board of Education.This change is the result of an amendment to the State Constitution adopted in 1998.

The current State Board has 7 members, each of whom serves in an ex-officio capacity by virtue of the elected office he or she holds: the governor, secretary of state, state treasurer, attorney general, commissioner of agriculture, state comptroller and commissioner of education. In July 2001, the appointed Florida Board of Education began operation. Beginning in 2003, this new board will appoint the commissioner of education. In the interim, a governor-appointed secretary of education is overseeing the transition process in cooperation with the elected commissioner of education and both the elected and appointed boards.

Legislation enacted in 2000 and 2001 has provided a framework for the implementation of this change. Effective July1, 2001, existing statewide boards and commissioners related to postsecondary education, including the State University System Board of Regents (established in 1965), the State Board of Community Colleges (1983), the State Board of Independent Colleges and Universities (1974), the State Board of Non-Public Career Education (1974), and the Postsecondary Education Planning Commission (1980), were repealed and, in most cases, their duties transferred to the Florida Board of Education.

The staff of the Postsecondary Education Planning Commission was assigned to a newly authorized Council for Education Policy Research and Improvement, which is administratively housed in the Office of Legislative Services. The council consists of 5 members appointed by the governor and two members each appointed by the president of the senate and the speaker of the house and shall conduct long-range planning and independent policy research and analysis.
Georgia : Postsecondary Governance Structures The University System of Georgia's Board of Regents was created in 1931 as a part of the reorganization of Georgia's state government. With this act, public postsecondary education in Georgia was unified for the first time under a single governing and management authority. The structure and the responsibility of the Board was made constitutional in 1943. The governor appoints members to the Board, with confirmation of the Senate, for staggered 7-year terms. The Board of Regents is composed of 18 members, 5 of whom are appointed from the state-at-large, and 1 from each of the 13 congressional districts. The Board has constitutional responsibility for planning and coordination, institutional budget review, including recommendations for a consolidated budget and program approval. The Board elects a chancellor who serves as its chief executive officer and the chief administrative officer of the University System. The Board oversees 35 institutions: 4 research universities, 2 regional universities, 13 state universities, 7 state colleges, and 9 2-year colleges.

In 1983, the governor established by executive order a State Board of Technical and Adult Education, which was made statutory in 1986. This 22-member board is appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate. All members represent business, industry or economic development and serve 5-year terms. The Board has statutory responsibility for leadership, management and operational control of 34 public postsecondary technical institutions.It is responsible for establishing standards, regulations and policies for the operation of the Georgia Department of Technical and Adult Education, the state's technical colleges, economic development programs, and adult literacy education programs.

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Hawaii : Postsecondary Governance Structures The Board of Regents of the University of Hawaii, established in 1907, serves as the constitutional governing board for the University of Hawaii, a statewide multicampus system of 7 community colleges, a complex land-grant university campus, a comprehensive undergraduate campus and an upper-division campus. The 12 members of the Board of Regents are appointed by the governor with consent of the Senate and serve 4-year terms limited to 2 consecutive terms. The Board has statutory authority in all areas of system policy, budgeting, programming, evaluating and governance.

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Idaho : Postsecondary Governance Structures The State Board of Education/Board of Regents of the University of Idaho serves as a single constitutional board for all public education, including elementary, secondary and postsecondary levels. First established in 1890, the Board became 1 of 19 executive branch departments established through governmental reorganization in 1974. The Board consists of 8 members 7 appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Senate to 5-year terms and the superintendent of public instruction, elected to a 4-year term. All appointed members represent the general public. The Board governs the State Department of Education, the 4 public senior institutions of postsecondary education, the Idaho School for the Deaf and the Blind, Professional-Technical Education, the Eastern Idaho Technical College, Vocational Rehabilitation, the Office of the State Board of Education and the statewide Educational/Public Broadcasting System. It also appoints members to the boards of the State Library and the State Historical Society and has general supervision of the public school system and the state's 2 junior colleges. The Board has responsibility in all areas of planning and coordination for all senior, junior and professional-technical public institutions and has statutory authority for program approval for junior and senior public institutions.

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Illinois : Postsecondary Governance Structures

The Illinois Board of Higher Education functions as a coordinating agency for public and private postsecondary education in Illinois. The Board was established in 1961 and its structure and responsibilities have been amended a number of times since then, most recently in 1995. The Board consists of 15 members: 10 public members appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate for 6-year terms; a member representing public university governing boards and a member representing independent college and university trustees, both appointed by the governor for 1-year terms; the chair of the Illinois Community College Board and the chair of the Illinois Student Assistance Commission, both of whom serve as ex-officio voting members by virtue of the office that he or she holds and serve at the pleasure of the governor; and a student board member who serves a 1-year term.

Legislation enacted in 1995 reduced the membership of the board from 17 to 15 members, eliminating the chairs of the then 4 public university governing boards and adding 2 members, 1 representing independent colleges and university boards of trustees. This same legislation abolished 2 of the 4 public university governing boards, the Board of Governors and the Board of Regents; transferred 1 of their campuses to the governance of the University of Illinois; and established individual institutional governing boards for the remaining 7 institutions, formerly governed by the Board of Governors and Board of Regents.

The Board has responsibility for planning and coordination of public universities, public community colleges, independent not-for-profit colleges and universities and degree-granting proprietary institutions. The Board has statutory responsibilities for the state-level planning function, program review and approval, and development of budget recommendations for all public universities and community colleges. Also, the Board has statutory authority to grant operating and degree-granting authority to independent and out-of-state institutions. The Board is designated to administer a number of state and federal grant programs, and further, to establish and maintain a college and university information system.

The Illinois Board of Higher Education is not a cabinet department, and Illinois does not have a secretary of education. The executive officer of the Board is appointed by and serves at the Board 's pleasure.

The Illinois Community College Board serves as the coordinating board for 39 public community college districts that have a combined total of 48 campuses. Each public community college district is governed by a locally elected board of trustees. There are 9 public university governing boards; 7 govern a single campus and 2 govern multiple campuses.

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Indiana : Postsecondary Governance Structures Established in 1971, the Commission of Higher Education functions as the statutory coordinating agency for postsecondary education in the state. The commission has 14 members--12 are appointed by the governor for four-year terms and represent the general public; one student and one faculty member serve two-year terms. The commission is charged with six responsibilities by statute: (1) long-range planning for postsecondary education in Indiana; (2) defining institutional roles; (3) approving new campuses or extension sites; (4) approving new program requests; (5) reviewing existing programs; (6) reviewing budget requests and recommending consolidated requests to the executive and legislative branches of state government. Indiana does not have an office of secretary of education and the coordinating agency is not a cabinet department. The executive officer of the commission is appointed by the commission and serves at its pleasure.
Iowa : Postsecondary Governance Structures

The State Board of Regents, established in 1909, serves as the statutory governing body for all public senior postsecondary education in the state. The Board is composed of 9 members appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate – eight represent the general public and there is one student representative with all serving 6-year terms. The Board has statutory governing authority for 3 public senior institutions, including program approval, planning and coordination, review and approval of institutional budgets, and recommendations for a consolidated budget.

The State Board of Education's Bureau of Community Colleges and Workforce Preparation has jurisdiction over the community colleges in Iowa. Community Colleges are governed by locally elected boards of directors. The State Board of Education, which has statutory oversight authority, is also made up of 9 members appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Senate to serve 6-year terms.

Iowa does not have an office of secretary of education, and the agency is not a cabinet department within the state. The executive officer of the Board of Regents is appointed by the Board and serves at its pleasure. The state director of education serves at the governor's pleasure.

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Kansas : Postsecondary Governance Structures The State Board of Regents, established in 1925, functions as the constitutional governing agency for six public universities in the state. The structure and responsibilities of the agency were amended in 1966, 1970, 1975, 1976, 1978 and 1991. The nine members of the board, appointed by the governor with the consent of the senate, represent the general public and serve four-year terms. Community colleges are under individual governing boards that are supervised by the State Board of Education. Designated postsecondary area vocational schools, which are not community colleges, also are supervised by the State Board of Education. One municipal university has its own governing board. The State Board of Regents, however, has coordinating responsibility for the municipal university in the areas of budget requests and academic program approval.

The Board of Regents has statutory responsibility for planning and coordination, program approval, and institutional budget review, including consolidated budget recommendations for all state senior institutions. The agency does not serve as a cabinet department, and the director of the Board of Regents is appointed by and serves at the board's pleasure.

The Legislative Education Planning Committee (LEPC), created in 1974, is a joint committee of the house and senate. Its statutory charge is to "plan for postsecondary education in Kansas, including both public and private institutions and vocational education." The committee considers specific legislative proposals, oversees data collection activities and conducts studies of postsecondary education issues. Study topics also may be assigned to the committee by the Legislative Coordinating Council (LCC). The LCC appoints the committee's membership, which consists of six members from the House of Representatives and five from the Senate.
Kentucky : Postsecondary Governance Structures The Council on Postsecondary Education was established in May 1997 by a legislative act replacing the Council on Higher Education. The original council was established in 1934 and amended in structure and function in 1966, 1972, 1982, 1994 and 1996. The council is the statutory coordinating agency for Kentucky's state-supported universities, and the new Kentucky Community and Technical College System is comprised of 13 community colleges and 15 postsecondary vocational-technical schools. The 1997 reform legislation gave the Council on Postsecondary Education new membership and stronger coordinating powers. The council consists of 16 members appointed by the governor, including 13 citizen members, 1 faculty member and 1 student member, and the state's commissioner of education as a nonvoting ex-officio member by virtue of the elected office he or she holds. All appointed members may vote. Citizen members serve 6-year terms; faculty members serve 4 years and the student serves a 1-year term.

The restructured Council on Postsecondary Education has statutory authority to: develop and implement a strategic agenda for postsecondary education; revise and approve missions and plans for the state-supported universities and the Kentucky Community and Technical College System; ensure a system of accountability; protect against unnecessary duplication; establish standards for admission to state-supported institutions; determine tuition rates; approve, modify or eliminate academic programs; make biennial budget recommendations; approve capital construction projects over $400,000; and ensure the transfer of credits and develop a financial reporting system.

The state has a Secretary for the Education, Arts and Humanities Cabinet. The council, however, is an independent board reporting to the governor and is responsive to the legislature.
Louisiana : Postsecondary Governance Structures The Board of Regents serves as the constitutional statewide coordinating and policymaking agency for public higher education. The board consists of 15 lay members appointed by the governor with the consent of the senate, and 1 student member elected by the student-body presidents. The 15 lay members represent the general public and serve overlapping 6-year terms of office. The student member serves a 1-year term. The board has both constitutional and statutory authority for planning and coordination for all public senior and junior institutions of higher education and responsibility for institutional budget review and recommending a consolidated budget. Proposed and existing degree programs are subject to board approval. The state does not have an office of secretary of education, and the agency is not a cabinet department. The executive officer of the board is appointed by and serves at the board's pleasure.
Maine : Postsecondary Governance Structures The Board of Trustees of the University of Maine system, established in 1968 is the principal statutory governing agency for public postsecondary education in the state. The board consists of 16 members, appointed by the governor for a maximum of two five-year terms. The commissioner of education serves in an ex-officio capacity. There is also one student member who serves a two-year term.

The Board of Trustees has statutory responsibility for planning and coordination, institutional budget review, and consolidated budget recommendations and program approval for all campuses of the university. As the governing and planning body of the University of Maine system, the board is responsible for developing and maintaining a cohesive structure of public postsecondary education in the state.
Maryland : Postsecondary Governance Structures The Maryland Higher Education Commission (MHEC) was created in 1988 to serve as the coordinating body for Maryland's postsecondary education system, which includes the following 6 segments: University System of Maryland, Morgan State University, St. Mary's College of Maryland, Community Colleges, Independent Colleges and Universities, and Private Career Schools.

Effective July 1999, legislation was enacted that changed the coordination, governance and funding structure for the University System of Maryland. This change also impacted the statutory responsibilities of MHEC. Major statutory responsibilities include: (1) review and approve campus mission statements; (2) review campus performance accountability; (3) establish and implement an early intervention program; (4) (administer statewide programs of student financial assistance; (5) prepare and biennially review a statewide plan for postsecondary education; (6) review operating and capital budgets and capital projects of public institutions and make budget recommendations to the governor and legislature consistent with the statewide plan; (7) review capital budget requests of the community colleges and independent institutions and make recommendations to the governor and legislature consistent with the statewide plan; (8) prescribe minimum degree requirements for public and private institutions; (9) review and approve new and existing academic programs; (10) administer state funds for private institutions according to the aid to nonpublic institutions of higher education law; (11) coordinate education policies with the Maryland State Department of Education and the University System of Maryland through the K-16 Partnership; and (12) serve as the coordinating agency for the 16 locally governed and one state-operated community colleges. The Secretary of Higher Education is the Commission chief executive officer and a member of the governor's cabinet. The secretary is appointed by the governor and serves at the Commission's pleasure.

The Commission consists of 12 lay voting members, including 1 student member, all appointed by the governor for 5-year terms with the advice and consent of the senate. Commission members are eligible for reappointment, but no member may serve more than 2 full 5-year terms.

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Massachusetts : Postsecondary Governance Structures

The Massachusetts Board of Higher Education, renamed in 1996, is the statewide coordinating agency responsible for overall coordination and broad policy development with respect to the University of Massachusetts and its 5 campuses, the 9 state colleges and 15 community colleges. Board responsibilities include statewide planning, mission definition, the transfer compact and approval of new academic programs. The Board has authority to consolidate, discontinue or transfer programs, to approve campus mission statements and conduct programs for assessment of student learning. Its responsibilities include oversight of the state financial aid program, licensure of independent institutions, data collection and certain other "consumer protection" and regulatory functions. With respect to the state and community colleges, or the University of Massachusetts, the Board receives and allocates appropriations to the institutions. The Board has the authority to establish tuition charges for the University of Massachusetts and its five campuses, the 9 state colleges and 15 community colleges. It also has governance powers in such areas as compensation of presidents and collective bargaining for state and community colleges.

The Board includes 11 voting members and the commissioner of education, who serves as an ex-officio, nonvoting member by virtue of the office he or she holds. The members serve staggered 5-year terms, except for the student member, whose term is limited to 1 year. The chancellor of higher education is appointed by and serves at the Board 's pleasure.

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Michigan : Postsecondary Governance Structures Michigan does not really have a state-level coordinating or governing agency for postsecondary education. Under the 1963 state constitution, very limited state postsecondary coordinating functions are assigned to the State Board of Education, which has primary responsibility for elementary and secondary education. The Board's responsibilities are limited to: the coordination of services for public two-year and four-year colleges and universities through policy recommendations to the Legislature with regard to budgetary and programmatic matters; licensing authority for vocational and proprietary institutions; and charter approval and reimbursement authorization for private colleges awarding certain degrees.

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Minnesota : Postsecondary Governance Structures There are currently 2 statewide, multicampus governing boards in Minnesota: (1) the legislature-appointed, 12-member Board of Regents of the University of Minnesota with constitutional authority for the 4 public senior universities and (2) the governor-appointed, 15-member Board of Trustees of the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities (MnSCU). As of 1995, the former technical colleges, community colleges and state universities were consolidated under the newly merged MnSCU system. Both boards have responsibility for planning and coordination, institutional budget review and recommendation, and program approval.

In 1995 the Minnesota legislature abolished the Minnesota Higher Education Coordinating Board, which existed for 30 years and transferred many of its key duties to the new Minnesota Higher Education Services Office. Functions of the new office include: administration of student financial aid programs; approval, registration and licensure of private collegiate and career schools; negotiation and administration of interstate tuition reciprocity programs; administration of the Minnesota Education Telecommunications Council; library planning; collection and maintenance of data on postsecondary education programs; information on students and parents; and administration of federal postsecondary education programs. The 1995 legislation also established a Higher Education Services Council (HESSC), consisting of 8 citizen members and 1 student member appointed by the governor. The council is responsible for appointing the director of the Services Office and communicating and making recommendations to the governor and legislature. Minnesota does not have an office of the secretary of education and the Services Office does not serve as a cabinet department.
Mississippi : Postsecondary Governance Structures

The Board of Trustees of State Institutions of Higher Learning, established in 1910 and reorganized in 1944, exercises constitutional governing authority over the 8 public institutions in the state. The Board consists of 12 members, who are appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate and who represent the general public. The members serve 12-year terms. The Board has statutory authority for planning and coordination, institutional budget review and consolidated budget recommendations, and program approval for the 8 senior public institutions in Mississippi. The state does not have an office of secretary of education, and the Board does not serve as a cabinet department. The executive officer of the Board is appointed by the Board and serves under a 4-year contract.

The State Board for Community and Junior Colleges (SBCJC) was established on July 1, 1986, and is comprised of 10 members who serve staggered, 6-year terms. The governor appoints the SBCJC members of which none may be an elected official and none may be engaged in the education profession. The governor is charged with appointing members from Mississippi's congressional districts with no 2 appointees residing in the same junior college district. The governor's appointees are made with the advice and consent of the state Senate. The SBCJC functions as a coordinating agency for the state's 15 public junior colleges responsible for: (a) authorizing disbursements of state appropriated funds to Community and Junior Colleges (CJCs) through orders in the minutes of the Board; (b) making studies of the needs of the state as they relate to the mission of the CJCs; (c) approving new, changes to and deletions of vocational and technical programs to the various colleges; (d) requiring CJCs to supply such information as the Board may request and compile, publish, and make available such reports based thereon as the Board may deem advisable; (e) approving proposed new attendance centers, as the local board shall determine to be in the best interest of the district; (f) serving as the state approving agency for federal funds for proposed contract to borrow money for various purposes; (g) approving application from CJC's for state funds for vocational-technical education facilities; (h) approving any university branch campus offering lower undergraduate level courses for credit; (i) appointing members to the Post-Secondary Education Assistance Board; (j) appointing members to the Authority for Educational Television; (k) contracting with other boards, commissions, government entities, foundations, corporations for individuals for programs, services grants and awards when such are needed for the operation and development of the state CJC system; (l) fixing standards for community and junior colleges to qualify for appropriations, and qualifications for community and junior colleges teachers; and (m) having sign-off approval on the State Plan for Vocational Education which is developed in cooperation with appropriate units of the State Department of Education.

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Missouri : Postsecondary Governance Structures The Coordinating Board for Higher Education, staffed by the Department of Higher Education, was established in 1963 and functions as the constitutional coordinating agency for postsecondary education in the state. The board has 9 members appointed by the governor with the consent of the senate. All 9 members represent the general public and serve 6-year terms of office. The coordinating board is a cabinet-level agency and its executive officer, the Commissioner of Higher Education, is appointed by the board and serves at its pleasure.

The board has statutory responsibility for planning and coordination of the state's system of postsecondary education, including public 4-year institutions, community colleges and independent and proprietary schools, colleges and universities. The board is responsible for conducting studies of population and enrollment trends affecting institutions of higher education in the state; identifying higher education needs in the state in terms of the requirements and potential of the young people and labor force requirements (commerce and industry) and of professional and public services; developing more effective and economical specialization among institutions in types of education programs offered and students served and for more effective coordination and mutual support in the utilization of facilities, faculty and other resources; coordinating reciprocal agreements with out-of-state institutions/entities; approval of new state-supported senior colleges or residence centers; establishing admission guidelines to facilitate transfer of students between institutions of postsecondary education in Missouri; institutional budget review and recommendations; and program approval for all public institutions, data collection and research. The board also administers the state's grant and scholarship programs and is the designated guaranty agency for the Federal Family Education Loan Program.
Montana : Postsecondary Governance Structures The Board of Regents of Higher Education, established and amended with regard to structure and function in 1973, functions as a constitutional governing agency for the Montana University System and has supervisory and coordinating authority over the state's community colleges. The Board of Regents and the Board of Public Education together compose the State Board of Education, a single board for all public education in the state. The Board of Regents consists of 10 members 7 appointed by the governor with the consent of the senate and 3 members who serve in an ex-officio capacity by virtue of the elected office he or she holds. Of those appointed, six represent the general public and one is a student. The ex-officio members include the commissioner of higher education, the state superintendent of public instruction and the governor. With the exception of the student, all appointed members serve 7-year terms of office. The Board of Regents has constitutional authority for planning and coordination, reviewing institutional budgets and making consolidated budget recommendations, and reviewing and approving programs for public senior institutions. It has statutory authority for the same functions with respect to community colleges. The state does not have an office of secretary of education, and the agency does not function as a cabinet department. The commissioner of higher education is appointed by the Board and serves at its pleasure.

The Board of Regents 1994 restructuring plan has now been implemented. Under the new structure, the four 4-year institutions (Montana Tech, Western Montana College, Montana State University-Northern and Montana State University-Billings) have been administratively merged with the 2 comprehensive, doctoral-level universities (The University of Montana and Montana State University). In addition, each of the 5 Colleges of Technology (former vocational-technical centers) has been absorbed into 1 of the 2 universities.

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Nebraska : Postsecondary Governance Structures

In November 1990, the people of Nebraska voted to amend their constitution, assigning comprehensive statewide planning for postsecondary education to a Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education. This Commission replaced a previous coordinating commission, which lacked the actual authority to truly coordinate postsecondary education. The new Commission, which became effective January 1, 1991, has statutory responsibility to review and recommend modification of public institutions' budgets to the Legislature and governor, and to review and approve capital construction projects and new academic programs at public postsecondary institutions. Other functions of the Commission include administering state student financial aid programs, coordinating the higher education portion of the Eisenhower Professional Development program, administering the IPEDS (Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System), and approving new 2- and 4-year postsecondary institutions.

The Commission is comprised of 11 members appointed by the governor from the general public. 6 of the commissioners represent districts of the state and 5 are appointed at-large. Each serves a 6-year term. The executive officer is appointed by and serves at the Commission's pleasure. Nebraska does not have a secretary of education, and the Commission does not serve as a cabinet department.

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Nevada : Postsecondary Governance Structures The Board of Regents of the Nevada System of Higher Education, established in 1864, functions as the constitutional governing agency for postsecondary education in the state. The Board consists of 13 members elected by the public for 6-year terms of office. The Board sets policies and approves budgets for the entire public system of higher education in the state: four community colleges, one state college, two universities and one research institute. The Board has statutory authority for planning and coordination of public senior, junior and vocational-technical institutions. In addition, the Board has statutory responsibility for budget review and consolidated budget recommendations and program approval for senior and junior public institutions. The Board does not function as a cabinet department, and its executive officer is appointed by the board and serves at its pleasure.

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New Hampshire : Postsecondary Governance Structures

New Hampshire has 2 institutional governing boards with complete authority for governing and planning, budget review and recommendation, and program approval:

1) The Board of Trustees of the University of New Hampshire System, created in 1963, has statutory authority for 3 public senior colleges. The Board is comprised of 27 members – 11 appointed by the governor and the executive council, 4 alumnae of the University of New Hampshire, 1 alumni each from Keene State College and Plymouth State College, 2 student trustees and 7 ex-officio.

2) The Community Technical College System, established in 1999, has statutory authority for 7 vocational institutions. Its 25 members include 12 governor and council appointees – 1 from law enforcement, 1 from the community services sector, 2 from the general public, 2 from the field of labor, 1 from the health services profession, 1 from the federal/technical field, 1 alumni, 1 high school vocational director, and 4 from the business and industry sectors. Members also include 2 students and 9 ex-officio.

The New Hampshire Postsecondary Education Commission, established in 1973, functions as the statutory coordinating agency for postsecondary education in the state. The Commission is composed of 22 members – 3 state college presidents, the chancellor of the university system, the president of 1 of the colleges in the Community Technical College System, 2 full-time resident undergraduates appointed by the trustees of the university system, the Commissioner of Education, the Commissioner of the Community Technical College System and 12 others appointed by the governor. The Commission's primary duties deal with licensure approval and student aid. The Commission also provides support and coordination as needed by other organizations and agencies in the state who have a commitment to postsecondary organization.

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New Jersey : Postsecondary Governance Structures

The Higher Education Restructuring Act of 1994 abolished the State Board and Department of Higher Education. The act gave increased autonomy to institutional boards of trustees and created 2 new entities, the Commission on Higher Education and the Presidents' Council. It also established the Higher Education Student Assistance Authority (formerly part of the Department of Higher Education and previously known as the Office of Student Assistance) as a separate entity to administer student financial aid programs.

The governor appoints the New Jersey Commission on Higher Education's 8 public members: 6 with the advice and consent of the Senate, 1 recommended by the Senate president and 1 recommended by the Assembly speaker. The governor also appoints a faculty representative, with the advice and consent of the Senate and 2 student representatives; the chair of the New Jersey Presidents' Council serves an ex-officio, by virtue of the office that he or she holds, with voting privileges as does the chair of the Higher Education Student Assistance Authority, for a total of 13 voting members. The executive director of Commission staff, appointed by the Commission, is an ex-officio nonvoting member by virtue of the office he or she holds. The 8 public members serve for 6 years; the length of service of the 3 ex-officio members coincides with tenure in their official capacities; and the student and faculty representatives serve for 1 year.

The Commission's responsibilities include systemwide planning, research and advocacy; final decisions on institutional licensure, university status and mission changes; policy recommendations for higher education initiatives and incentive programs and an annual coordinated (systemwide) budget policy statement; and, upon referral from the New Jersey Presidents' Council, decisions on new academic programs that exceed an institution's mission or are unduly costly or duplicative. In addition, the Commission generally supervises the Educational Opportunity Fund (EOF), a program of both financial aid and academic support for disadvantaged students. The Commission's coordinating responsibilities extend to all sectors of New Jersey higher education: senior public colleges and universities, community colleges, private institutions (religious institutions, as well as those receiving state support), and degree-granting proprietary institutions. Public vocational-technical institutions and proprietary schools that do not offer college degrees are under the State Department of Education.

The New Jersey Presidents' Council consists of the presidents of the state's 31 public institutions, the 14 independent institutions receiving state aid and 4 representatives of the 11 other nonpublic degree-granting institutions licensed by the Commission on Higher Education. Service of the 45 presidents of public and public-mission independent institutions on the Council coincides with their tenure as presidents. The 4 presidents representing the 11 degree-granting proprietary and religious schools serve as long as the institution's enrollment is large enough to qualify for membership. A 14-member executive board guides the activities of the Presidents' Council. Executive board membership is established in statute and consists of presidents selected by presidents from the various sectors of New Jersey higher education: 5 from community colleges, the 3 public research university presidents, 3 from the state colleges/teaching university sector, and 3 from public-mission independent institutions. The Presidents' Council's responsibilities include reviewing and commenting on new academic programs; providing research and public information on higher education; advising the commission on planning, institutional licensure/mission and costly/duplicative new academic programs; making recommendations on statewide higher education issues, state aid and student assistance; and encouraging regional and cooperative programs and transfer articulation agreements.

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New Mexico : Postsecondary Governance Structures The Commission on Higher Education functions as the state coordinating agency for postsecondary education. Its structure and responsibility were amended in 1967, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1985, 1987, 1988, 1994, 1995 1996 and 1999. The commission consists of 15 members 13 representing the general public appointed by the governor and confirmed by the senate to serve 6-year terms of office, and 2 student members appointed by the governor to serve 1-year terms (1 as a voting member and the other as an ex-officio member by virtue of the office he or she holds). The commission has statutory responsibility for planning and coordination for all sectors of postsecondary education (public senior, junior, vocational-technical, private and proprietary). In addition, the agency has statutory responsibility for: budget review and recommendation for public 2- and 4-year institutions, approval of new associate degrees at vocational-technical institutes and new graduate programs in public senior colleges. The commission is not a cabinet department, and the executive officer of the commission is appointed by and serves at the commission's pleasure.
New York : Postsecondary Governance Structures The University of the State of New York consists of all elementary, secondary and postsecondary education institutions, which are incorporated in the state and other libraries, museums, institutions, schools, organizations and agencies for education as may be admitted to or incorporated by the university. The term "university" is used here as a broad term encompassing all the institutions offering education in the state. The university is empowered to charter, register and inspect education institutions; to license and supervise the professional conduct of practitioners in nearly all the professions; to certify teachers and librarians; and to apportion certain state financial assistance to public and private education institutions.

The Board of Regents of The University of the State of New York, established by the legislature in 1784, is responsible for the general supervision of and setting of policy for all education activities within the state and presides over the university and the state education department. The regents and the university are established under the state constitution, and the 16 regents are elected by the Legislature, 1 from each of the state's 12 judicial districts plus 4 elected at-large, for terms of 5 years without pay. The chancellor and vice chancellor are elected from among their number by a majority of the regents, and the regents have legislative, executive and judicial powers. The regents and the department have authority and responsibility for planning and coordination, degree powers and program approval for all sectors and levels of postsecondary education, including all degree-granting institutions. The president of the University of the State of New York is appointed by the regents and serves at their pleasure. The president serves also as the commissioner of education and the chief executive officer of the state education department, whose duties are both executive and judicial.

 rev. 10/2007

North Carolina : Postsecondary Governance Structures

The Board of Governors of the University of North Carolina (UNC) was created by legislative action of the 1971 General Assembly on July 1, 1972. Its broad purpose is to plan and develop a well-planned and coordinated higher education system, to improve the quality of higher education, to extend its benefits to all citizens, and to encourage an economical use of state resources. It also governs 16 public senior institutions in the state. The Board of Governors is responsible for program approval; preparation of a single, unified budget request for all 16 public senior institutions; setting enrollment levels and other matters not delegated to institutional boards of trustees. It maintains close liaisons with the governing boards for the public schools and the community colleges. The chief executive officer of the university, the president, is elected by and serves at the pleasure of the Board. The Board does not serve as a cabinet department, but gives advice and recommendations concerning higher education to the governor, the General Assembly, the advisory budget commission and the institutional boards of trustees.

The Board is composed of 32 members, 16 of whom are elected by the legislature every 2 years. All 32 members, serving 4-year terms, are deemed members-at-large, charged with the responsibility of serving the best interests of the entire state. Special members of the Board include former governors, past board chairs and the president of the UNC Association of Student Governments; these ex-officio members, who serve by virtue of the office he or she holds/held, may not vote. At-large members may serve only 3 successive terms.

The State Board of Community Colleges was established by action of the 1979 General Assembly and began operations in 1981. The Board has governing authority for the 58 comprehensive public 2-year institutions and 1 technology center. The State Board of Community Colleges consists of 20 members: 10 members appointed by the governor (4 at-large and 6 regional members), 8 at-large members elected by the legislature, and the lieutenant governor and the state treasurer, who serve as ex-officio members by virtue of the elected office he or she holds. The State Board of Community Colleges establishes policies, regulations and standards for the administrative offices and the institutions that comprise the North Carolina Community College System. It elects the president of the system, who is its chief executive officer.

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North Dakota : Postsecondary Governance Structures

The State Board of Higher Education was established in 1939 and functions as the constitutional governing body and the policy-setting body for North Dakota's 6 publicly supported universities (2 of which were administratively merged in 1993, now served by 1 president), 3 2-year branches, and 5 2-year colleges. In 1990, the Board of Higher Education created the North Dakota University System whereby all 11 institutions are accountable to a chancellor appointed by the Board. The chancellor is the chief executive officer of the North Dakota University System. The North Dakota University System central office is responsible for recommending policy changes and ensuring that the policies set forth by the Board are carried out by the institutions.

The Board consists of 7 8 members appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate. 7 represent the general public, are appointed by the governor, and serve 4-year terms. A voting student member was provided by statute in 1995. The voting student member is appointed by the governor and serves a 1-year term. A non-voting faculty advisor is selected by the Council of College Faculties.

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Ohio : Postsecondary Governance Structures The Ohio Board of Regents, established in 1963, serves as the statutory coordinating agency in the state. The board consists of 9 members serving 9-year terms representing the general public and appointed by the governor with the consent of the senate and 2 ex-officio members (chairpersons of the house and senate education committees) who serve by virtue of the elected office that he or she holds. The board has statutory authority for planning and coordination for private institutions and public senior, community and technical institutions. The board has statutory responsibility to review institutional requests for state support, review and make recommendations for a consolidated budget and approve programs for public senior and 2-year colleges, private colleges and universities and diploma schools of nursing. The state does not have an office of secretary of education, and although the agency is not a cabinet department, the current and former governor have invited the chancellor to participate fully in cabinet events and activities. The chancellor, the executive officer of the board, is appointed by and serves at the board's pleasure.
Oklahoma : Postsecondary Governance Structures The State Regents for Higher Education, established by constitutional amendment in 1941, is the coordinating board in control for public postsecondary education in Oklahoma. Constitutionally, private institutions may be coordinated with the state system. The membership of the regents is set by the constitution at 9 members, appointed for 9-year overlapping terms by the governor with the consent of the Senate, all representing the general public. The regents have constitutional responsibility for prescribing standards, granting degrees, setting fees, determining budget needs and making budget allocations to all public institutions of higher education, both senior and junior. In addition, the regents have constitutional authority for planning and coordination of all postsecondary institutions, both public and private. The executive officer of the regents is appointed by the regents and serves at their pleasure.

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Oregon : Postsecondary Governance Structures The Department of Higher Education, established in 1929, functions as a statutory cabinet department of state government. It is charged with coordination of the Oregon University System, the public postsecondary higher education system in Oregon. The department administers the policies set by the Oregon State Board of Higher Education, which is composed of 11 members (including 1 faculty member and 2 students) appointed by the governor and confirmed by the senate. Members of the Oregon State Board of Higher Education serve up to 2 consecutive 4-year terms for regular members and up to 2 consecutive 2-year terms for faculty and student members. The board has statutory authority for 6 public universities and 1 institute of technology and is responsible for planning a comprehensive system, approving all degree programs (including those of an affiliated health and science university), granting degrees, developing and approving budget requests (both operating and capital construction), and controlling and managing real property. The chancellor, chief administrative officer, is hired by and serves at the board's pleasure.

The State Board of Education, established in 1951, is comprised of 7 members appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Senate for up to 2 consecutive 4-year terms. The State Board of Education has statutory authority for the supervision and regulation of 17 community colleges, each of which has its own elected governing board.

The 2 boards, per statute (ORS 348.890), meet jointly to coordinate their activities and reach joint agreement on matters of education policy and opportunities of mutual interest to the 2 boards and to the populations served by the boards.

The Office of Degree Authorization (ODA), under the purview of the Oregon Student Assistance Commission, reviews proposed new publicly funded postsecondary programs and locations, and oversees the process if another school or education segment believe the new program or location will cause detrimental duplication or significant adverse impact. The Oregon Student Assistance Commission appoints the ODA administrator (ORS 348.599).
Pennsylvania : Postsecondary Governance Structures The State Board of Education has statutory authority for the planning and coordination of Pennsylvania's postsecondary education sectors.

The General Assembly created the State Board of Education in 1963. It replaced the College and University Council, created in 1895, and the State Council of Education, created in 1929. The Board is organized into 2 councils whose members are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate for overlapping terms of 6 years. Of the 22 members, 10 serve as members of the Council of Basic Education and 10 are members of the Council of Higher Education, with the chairman of the board serving on both councils. In addition, 1 non-voting member serves on the State Board of Education, but is not required to serve on either council. There is a statutory office of the secretary of education with the State Department of Education as a cabinet-level agency.

The Pennsylvania State Department of Education regulates the community colleges and performs other regulatory functions, such as program approval responsibilities for the various postsecondary education sectors, dependent upon each institution's articles of incorporation and various statutes.

 rev. 10/2007

Puerto Rico : Postsecondary Governance Structures The Puerto Rico Council on Higher Education (PRCHE) is the coordinating agency for all higher education institutions, public and private. PRCHE was originally established in 1945 with its current structure established by law in 1993. It is composed of 9 members appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate. 8 members represent the general public and serve 6-year terms, and the secretary of the Puerto Rico Department of Education is an ex-officio member by virtue of the office he or she holds.

The Board of Trustees of the University of Puerto Rico is the statewide governing body of the major public university system of 11 campuses. The board has been in existence since 1903, and its current structure was established by law in 1993. It is comprised of 13 members -- 10 represent the general public and serve from four- to eight-year terms; one student and two faculty members serve one-year terms. The 13 members are appointed by the governor and the 10 members representing the general public require consent of the Senate.
Rhode Island : Postsecondary Governance Structures

The Board of Governors for Higher Education, established in 1981, serves as the statutory governing agency for the Community College of Rhode Island, Rhode Island College and the University of Rhode Island. The Board of Governors consists of 15 members: 12 appointed by the governor (including one student), the chairperson of the Board of Regents for Elementary and Secondary Education (also appointed by the governor), and the chairpersons of the Senate and House finance committees or their designees. Governor appointees require confirmation by the Senate. Public members serve a 3-year office term, and they may be reappointed to a total of 3 terms (except students who may serve only 1 2-year term). The powers and duties of the Board include: developing a postsecondary education information system, state-level planning approving postsecondary institutions and programs, budget preparation and property management for public postsecondary education, and general oversight of public postsecondary education. The executive officer of the Board is the commissioner of higher education, who is appointed by the Board with the approval of the governor and serves at the Board's pleasure. The Board maintains an office of higher education.

There is a Board of Regents for Elementary and Secondary Education and a Public Telecommunications Authority. Prior to 1981, the responsibilities of these 2 entities, together with those of the Board of Governors, were vested in a single Board of Regents for Education.

 rev. 10/2007

South Carolina : Postsecondary Governance Structures The Commission of Higher Education was established in 1967 as the statutory coordinating agency for higher education. In 1978, 1988 and 1995, the General Assembly adopted amendments to the enabling legislation, which restructured the commission membership. The current commission consists of 14 members appointed by the governor -- 1 at-large member to serve as chairman, 1 from each of 6 congressional districts appointed upon the recommendation of the majority of the legislative delegation from the respective districts, 3 members appointed from the state at-large (all of the above for 4-year terms), 3 ex-officio voting members, who serve by virtue of the office that he or she holds, to represent the public colleges and universities (1 must serve on the board of trustees of 1 of the public senior research institutions, 1 must serve on the board of trustees of 1 of the 4-year public institutions and 1 must be a member of 1 of the local area technical commissions on the State Board for Technical and Comprehensive Education) and 1 ex-officio nonvoting member, who serves by virtue of the office that he or she holds, of the Advisory Council of Private College Presidents to represent the independent colleges and universities. The four ex-officio members are appointed upon the advice and consent of the Senate and serve 2-year terms.

The current version of the legislation requires a comprehensive strategic planning and institutional effectiveness program, as well as a performance funding system where the institutions are funded based entirely on performance indicators categorized under nine critical success factors. The institutions must submit their budgets to the commission, which presents a unified appropriation request to the governor and appropriate standing committees of the General Assembly. The commission must approve all new programs proposed by the senior institutions and all degree-granting programs from the two-year technical colleges. It also must approve all requests for facilities and establish procedures for transferability of courses at the undergraduate level. The commission also has responsibility for licensing both nondegree- and degree-granting institutions to operate in the state and to approve programs for veterans' benefits. It administers several state student aid programs, a variety of federal and state programs, as well as several Southern Regional Education Board contract programs.

The executive officer of the commission is appointed by and serves at the commission's pleasure. Although South Carolina government has been reorganized so that there are some cabinet-level departments, education is not included in this cabinet structure, and there is no secretary of education.
South Dakota : Postsecondary Governance Structures The South Dakota Board of Regents serves as the constitutional governing body for the 6 public universities, a school for the deaf and a school for the blind and visually impaired. The Board was expanded by statute to 9 voting members, which includes 1 student representative, appointed by the governor with Senate confirmation to serve 6-year office terms (the student serves for 2 years). There are no public junior colleges in the state. The executive officer of the Board of Regents is appointed by and serves at the Board's pleasure.

 rev. 10/2007

Tennessee : Postsecondary Governance Structures The Tennessee Higher Education Commission was created by the General Assembly in 1967 to serve as the statutory coordinating agency for postsecondary education in Tennessee. The Commission consists of 15 members -- 9 represent the general public and are appointed by the governor for 6-year terms (legislative consent is not required), the comptroller of the treasury, secretary of state and the state treasurer serve as ex-officio voting members by virtue of the elected office that he or she holds, and 2 student members (1 student from each governing system, with the alternating right to vote). Also the executive director of the State Board of Education serves as an ex-officio member by virtue of the office that he or she holds. The Commission has statutory responsibility for planning and coordination for technology centers, public technical institutes, community colleges and 4-year institutions, and as a matter of policy for private institutions. The Commission has statutory responsibility to license and regulate private trade schools operating within the state. By statute, the Commission reviews institutional budgets and makes budget recommendations for public technical institutes, community colleges and senior universities, as well as the system of 26 nondegree-granting state area vocational-technical schools. In addition, the Commission has statutory authority to approve new degree programs for this same set of institutions. Tennessee does not have an office of secretary of education, and the Commission does not serve as a cabinet department. The executive officer is appointed by and serves at the Commission's pleasure.

 rev. 10/2007

Texas : Postsecondary Governance Structures The Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board serves as the statutory coordinating agency for public postsecondary education in the state. The board is composed of 18 members representing the general public, who are appointed by the governor with Senate confirmation for 6-year overlapping terms. The board has statutory responsibility for approving or disapproving all degree programs and off-campus activities for public community and technical colleges and universities. The board also develops formulas for use by the governor and Legislative Budget Board in recommending legislative appropriations needed to finance public higher education institutions. The board is responsible for authorizing elections to create public community college districts and the adoption of standards for the operation of public community colleges. It also approves or disapproves most major new construction and repair and rehabilitation at public universities. Texas does not have an office of secretary of education, and the board does not function as a cabinet department. The commissioner of higher education (the agency's chief executive officer) is appointed by and serves at the board's pleasure.
Utah : Postsecondary Governance Structures The State Board of Regents, established in 1969 and amended in structure and responsibility in 1974, 1981, 1991 and 2001, has statutory governing authority for a total of 10 public institutions: 4 universities, 2 state colleges, 3 community colleges and 1 college of applied technology. The Board is composed of 18 members- 15 represent the general public and are appointed by the governor with Senate confirmation for 6-year terms; 1 student serves a 1-year term and is appointed by the governor from a list of 3 students nominated by the Statewide Council of Student Body Presidents and 2 members of the State Board of Education serve as nonvoting members. The Board of Regents has statutory authority for coordinating and planning for all segments of public postsecondary education (junior, senior and vocational-technical). In addition, the Board has authority to approve programs, review institutional budgets and make consolidated budget recommendations for public senior and junior institutions. The Board also is responsible for hiring the presidents of each of the 10 institutions, setting their salaries, and reviewing their performance. Utah has no secretary of education, and the Board of Regents is not a cabinet department. The executive officer, known as the commissioner of higher education, is appointed by and serves at the Board's pleasure.

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Vermont : Postsecondary Governance Structures There is no statutory or constitutional statewide postsecondary coordinating or planning agency in Vermont. The Vermont Higher Education Council is a voluntary body created for informal communication and planning. The Boards of Trustees for the University of Vermont and the State Agricultural College and the Vermont State Colleges govern the 2 institutional systems in the state.

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Virginia : Postsecondary Governance Structures The State Council of Higher Education, established in 1956 and amended in structure and responsibility in 1970, 1974, 1977, 1980, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1996, 1999 and 2001 serves as the statutory coordinating agency in the state. The council consists of 11 members appointed by the governor with confirmation by the legislature. All members represent the general public and serve 4-year office terms. The council has statutory responsibility for planning and coordination, program approval for public senior and junior institutions, and responsibility for the development of all budget guidelines and formulas. In addition, the council reviews institutional budgets and makes budget recommendations. It also administers a number of higher education programs, including several pertaining to affirmative action and conducts numerous studies at the request of the governor and the general assembly. Virginia has a statutory office secretary of education established in 1972. The State Council of Higher Education is not a cabinet department, and the executive officer of the council is appointed by and serves at the council's pleasure.
Washington : Postsecondary Governance Structures The Higher Education Coordinating Board replaced the Council for Postsecondary Education in 1985. The board is composed of 9 at-large citizen members appointed by the governor with Senate confirmation. 8 board members serve 4-year terms. The chair is appointed by and serves at the governor's pleasure. The Higher Education Coordinating Board has statutory responsibility for: (1) developing role and mission statements; (2) preparing a master plan; (3) reviewing and evaluating operating and capital budget requests for each of the 4-year public institutions and for the community and technical college system; (4) recommending legislation; (5) recommending tuition and fee policies; (6) establishing financial aid priorities; (7) preparing recommendations on merging or closing institutions; (8) developing criteria for identifying need for new baccalaureate institutions; (9) approving and reviewing degree programs; and (10) overseeing telecommunicated education. The board does not function as a cabinet department. The executive officer of the board is appointed by and serves at the board's pleasure.

The State Board for Community College Education was created by the Community College Act of 1967 and modified in 1991 by the state legislature to become the State Board for Community and Technical Colleges (SBCTC). 9 members serve on the SBCTC for 4-year terms and are appointed by the governor with consent of the Legislature. The SBCTC is the central administrative agency for the 27 public community colleges and 5 technical colleges. The state board is responsible for policies covering concerns of a statewide nature (budget and funds allocations, standard policies and institutional locations).
West Virginia : Postsecondary Governance Structures The West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission is the state-level coordinating agency for public postsecondary education in West Virginia. Established in 2000, the commission takes the place of the Board of Trustees of the University System of West Virginia and the Board of Directors of the State College System. The commission is composed of 9 members, who serve overlapping terms of 4 years. The governor appoints 7 members, and two ex-officio members – the Secretary of Education and the State Superintendent of Schools – also serve on the commission. The commission is charged with developing, gaining consensus around and overseeing the implementation of a public policy agenda for postsecondary education in West Virginia.
Wisconsin : Postsecondary Governance Structures The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System was established in 1971 and serves as the statutory governing agency for the state's 13 public 4-year universities and 13 freshman-sophomore university centers and university extension. The Board consists of 17 members -- 14 appointed by the governor for 7-year terms, subject to Senate confirmation; 2 serve as ex-officio members (the superintendent of the department of public instruction and a representative of the Wisconsin Technical College System Board) by virtue of the office that he or she holds; and 1 student regent, appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Senate, serves a 2-year term.

The Wisconsin Technical College System Board was established in 1971 and is composed of 13 members. 3 employers, 3 employees and 3 members-at-large are appointed by the governor for 6-year terms, subject to Senate confirmation. A student member appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Senate serves a 2-year term. The president of the Board of Regents, the superintendent of the Department of Public Instruction and the secretary of the Department of Industry, Labor and Human Relations serve as ex-officio members by virtue of the offices that each holds. The state is divided into 16 technical college districts operating 42 campuses, with 3 offering a lower-division, college-level liberal arts program. The agency is charged with the statutory mission of providing programs in vocational, technical and short-term and apprenticeship programs. The Board has statutory responsibility for program planning, coordinating, approval and evaluation, and accountability for the use of state and federal funds.

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Wyoming : Postsecondary Governance Structures In 1997, the Wyoming Legislature established the Wyoming Education Planning and Coordinating Council to take the place of the Postsecondary Education Coordinating Council, which was established in 1991. The governor serves as council chairman and the superintendent of public instruction serves as vice-chairman. Other members include: chairman of the Senate education committee; chairman of the House education committee; the president of the University of Wyoming; the executive director of the Wyoming Community College Commission; 2 state citizens appointed by the governor; 1 member of the Wyoming legislature from the minority party; the president of the Wyoming Community College President's Council; the chairman of the Wyoming Community College Commission; a certified K-12 teacher appointed by the superintendent of public instruction; the chairman of the State Board of Education; the president of the Wyoming School Boards Association; the president of the Wyoming Association of School Administrators; the chairman of the Wyoming Workforce Development Council within the governor's office; the president of the University of Wyoming Board of Trustees; and a University of Wyoming instructor selected by the University of Wyoming Board of Trustees.

The Council identifies goals for education in Wyoming and coordinates a means to attain those goals. It also identifies, collects and disseminates issues and information affecting Wyoming education and facilitates cooperative arrangements among state education institutions.

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